Politics Divergent §7:”The language of instruction is normally Norwegian” was deleted from the Universities and Colleges Act in 2002 Implementation of the Bologna Declaration Language Council working to to protect Norwegian (status planning) Linguistic parallelism
Policies Universities/colleges do not have any approved language policy Language policy implied in other types of regulations Students read set books in English Most lectures are in Norwegian, some are in English PhD theses in English compulsory in some subject fields Funding indirectly depends upon publishing in English No/few translation services
Attitudes Interviewee 1: If it were decided that we should write in English, I would see many positive reasons for that, but if it were said that we should write in Norwegian, then... No, I would... Confining, like. Backward.
Attitudes Interviewer: Can you tell me, what made you choose to write [your PhD thesis] in English? Interviewee 2: It was never really a... I think I never even considered writing [it] in Norwegian. Interviewer: You mean, you didn’t spend time wondering about it: “Should I write my thesis in English or Norwegian?” Interviewee 2: It was never... It was altogether no... I don’t think I ever made any conscious decision about it, seeing that it was rather self-evident.
Will English become the High variety of Norway? Tyrannosaurus Rex imagery not always helpful No language has a will of its own The individual speaker’s role
Adapted from Keller, R. (1994): On language change. The invisible hand in language
Will English become the High Variety of Norway? Features similar to diglossia: –Feeling of superiority/inferiority –English used in some high prestige areas of society Features different from diglossia: –Written language, literature –Norwegian is used in some high prestige areas of society, as well as in informal situations
Bibliography Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs (2001): “Do your duty – Demand your rights. Reform of the quality of higher education.” Fact sheet by the Ministry of Education, Research and Church Affairs. http://www.dep.no/ufd/engelsk/publ/stmeld/014071-120002/index-dok000-b- n-a.html http://www.dep.no/ufd/engelsk/publ/stmeld/014071-120002/index-dok000-b- n-a.html Ferguson, C. A. (1972 ): ”Diglossia”. In: Giglioli, P. P. (ed.): Language and Social Context. Penguin Modern Sociology Readings. Keller, R. (1994): On language change. The invisible hand in language. London/New York: Routledge. Kyvik, S. (2001):”Publiseringsvirksomheten ved universiteter og vitenskapelige høgskoler.” Oslo: NIFU skriftserie 15/2001. This is the source of the publication language statistics for University/college staff Ljosland, R. (2003): Engelsk som akademisk språk i Norge. En domenetapsstudie. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. MA thesis. Ministry of Education and Research (2003): Stortingsproposisjon nr. 1 2002/2003. http://www.odin.dep.no/ufd/norsk/publ/stprp/045001- 030004/dok-bn.htmlhttp://www.odin.dep.no/ufd/norsk/publ/stprp/045001- 030004/dok-bn.html
Norway. Implementation of the Elements of the Bologna Process. http://www.bologna-berlin2003.de/pdf/Norway1.pdf http://www.bologna-berlin2003.de/pdf/Norway1.pdf Norwegian University of Science and Technology (2004): “Justert inntektsfordelingsmodell”. Intranet news 08.06.2004. https://innsida.ntnu.no/ua_lesmer_fra_innsida.php?kategori=nyheter&dokid =40c5d5a6eac295.22707496 https://innsida.ntnu.no/ua_lesmer_fra_innsida.php?kategori=nyheter&dokid =40c5d5a6eac295.22707496 Norsk språkråd (2001): “Plan for styrking av norsk språk” (Plan for strengthening the Norwegian language). http://www.sprakrad.no/spraksty.htm http://www.sprakrad.no/spraksty.htm Smith, A. (1991 ): The Wealth of Nations. Everyman’s Library. London: David Campbell Publishers Ltd. Swales, J. M. (1997): “English as Tyrannosaurus Rex”. In: World Englishes 16/3. The Universities and Colleges Act: http://www.ub.uio.no/ujur/ulovdata/lov- 19950512-022-eng.pdfhttp://www.ub.uio.no/ujur/ulovdata/lov- 19950512-022-eng.pdf Universitets- og høgskolerådet (2002): Evaluering av norsk forskerutdanning. http://www.uhr.no/sentraledokument/evforskerutd.htm This is the source for the language statistics for PhD theseshttp://www.uhr.no/sentraledokument/evforskerutd.htm