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NFAs and DFAs Sipser 1.2 (pages 47-63)

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Last time…

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NFA A nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) is a 5-tuple (Q, Σ, δ, q0, F), where Q is a finite set called the states Σ is a finite set called the alphabet δ: Q × Σε → P(Q) is the transition function q0∈Q is the start state F⊆Q is a set of accept states In-class exercise:

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**NFA computation Let N=(Q, Σ, δ, q0, F) be a NFA and let**

w be a string over the alphabet Σ Then N accepts w if w can be written as w1w2w3…wm with each wi∈Σε and There exists a sequence of states s0,s1,s2,…,sm exists in Q with the following conditions: s0=q0 si+1∈δ(si,wi+1) for i = 0,…,m-1 sn∈F

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One last operation

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**Kleene star operation Let A be a language.**

The Kleene star operation is A* = {x1x2…xk | k ≥ 0 and each xi ∈ A} Exercise A = {w | w is a string of 0s and 1s containing an odd number of 1s} B = {w | w is a string of 0s and 1s containing an even number of 1s} C = {0,1} What are A*, B*, and C*?

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**- From http://visualbasic.about.com/od/usevb6/a/RegExVB6.htm**

Clay Knee? Kleene pronounced his last name klay'nee. His son, Ken Kleene, wrote: "As far as I am aware this pronunciation is incorrect in all known languages. I believe that this novel pronunciation was invented by my father." Dr. "Clay Knee" must have been a geek of the first water, to be sure! - From

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Kleene star Theorem: The class of languages recognized by NFAs is closed under the Kleene star operation.

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If only… … somebody would prove that the class of languages recognized by NFAs and the class of languages recognized by DFAs were equal…

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**Then… We’d have: The class of regular languages is closed under:**

Concatenation Kleene star

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**a cute proof for closure under union!**

And… a cute proof for closure under union!

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We can be that somebody! Theorem: A language is regular if and only if there exists an NFA that recognizes it. Proof: (⇒) Let A be a regular language…

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**Then there exists a DFA M**

M is a 5-tuple (Q, Σ, δM, q0, F), where Q is a finite set called the states Σ is a finite set called the alphabet δ: Q × Σ → Q is the transition function q0∈Q is the start state F⊆Q is a set of accept states

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**We need to show there exists an NFA N**

N is a 5-tuple (Q, Σ, δN, q0, F), where Q is a finite set called the states Σ is a finite set called the alphabet δ: Q × Σε → P(Q) is the transition function q0∈Q is the start state F⊆Q is a set of accept states Can we define N from M?

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Now the other way! Theorem: A language is regular if and only if there exists an NFA that recognizes it. Proof: (⇒) Let A be a language accepted by NFA N = (Q, Σ, δ, q0, F)

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Equivalent machines Definition: Two machines are equivalent if they recognize the same language Let’s prove: Theorem: Every NFA has an equivalent DFA.

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Remember…

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A simpler example

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**Removing choice Proof: Let A be a language accepted by NFA**

N = (Q, Σ, δ, q0, F) We construct a DFA M=(Q’, Σ, δ’, q0’, F’) recognizing A Q’ = P(Q) For R∈Q' and a∈Σ, define δ'(R,a) = ∪ δ(r,a) q0’ = {q0} F’ = { R∈Q’ | R contains an accept state from F} r∈R

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**Okay, but what about ε arrows?**

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**Modifying our construction**

Proof: Let A be a language accepted by NFA N = (Q, Σ, δ, q0, F) We construct a DFA M=(Q’, Σ, δ’, q0’, F’) recognizing A Q’ = P(Q) For R∈Q' and a∈Σ, define δ'(R,a) = ∪ E(δ(r,a)) where E(R) = {q | q can be reached from R along 0 or more ε arrows} q0’ = E({q0}) F’ = { R∈Q’ | R contains an accept state from F} r∈R

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