# 39 million americans need diplomas ged 2014-time for change

## Presentation on theme: "39 million americans need diplomas ged 2014-time for change"— Presentation transcript:

39 million americans need diplomas ged 2014-time for change

what will the changes mean to adult education?
2 critical concerns for ABE/GED instructors: a) get students to pass GED and prepare them for workforce and higher education b) improve digital literacy 3 areas for our focus today: a) overview of changes-topics & item types b) resources-lesson plans & websites c) alignment of CCSS and 2014 GED test

What will the changes mean to adult education?
During the school year, K-12 students will be assessed on CCSS; the GED test will align to these. Emphasis on DOK (Depth of Knowledge) rather than Bloom’s Taxonomy- we need to teach skills that enable reasoning…refer to GEDTS has partnered with Pearson Vue-test will be solely computerized. Test takers must be able to type 20 words/minute to be successful on the Extended Response and Short Answer items …RIGOR!

Mathematical reasoning
The math portion of the test will focus on problem solving in 2 areas: a) quantitative (45%) and b) algebraic (55%) The skill groups will be aggregated into 4 reporting groups: a) quantitative problems in rational numbers (25%) b) quantitative problems in measurement (20%) c) algebraic problem solving with linear equations and expressions (30%) d) algebraic problem solving with graphs and functions (25%)

Mathematical reasoning
Approximately 30% of the GED test items will be aligned to a mathematical practice standard in addition to a content indicator (NCTM)… refer to & Here are the 5 practices: a) Building solution pathways and lines of reasoning 1. search for and recognize entry points for solving a problem 2. plan a solution pathway or outline a line of reasoning 3. select the best solution pathway, according to given criteria 4. recognize and identify missing information that is required to solve a problem 5. select the appropriate math technique to use in solving a problem

Mathematical reasoning
b) Abstracting problems 1. represent real world problems algebraically 2. represent real world problems visually 3. recognize the important attributes of a problem c) Furthering lines of reasoning 1. build steps of a line of reasoning 2. complete the lines of reasoning of others 3. improve or correct a flawed line of reasoning

Mathematical reasoning
d) Mathematical fluency 1. manipulate and solve arithmetic expressions 2. transform and solve algebraic expressions 3. display data or algebraic expressions graphically e) Evaluating reasoning and solution pathways 1. recognize flaws in others’ reasoning 2. recognize and use counterexamples 3. identify the information required to evaluate a line of reasoning OUR GOAL IS TO HELP STUDENTS DEVELOP A PROCESS FOR APPROACHING PROBLEMS-ONE THEY WILL REMEMBER

Mathematical reasoning
Candidates will be provided with an online calculator, the TI-30XS. View a calculator demonstration video at Item types will include multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, drop-down, hot spot, and drag-and-drop.

science The science test is expected to be more difficult for many students because of the emphasis on eight science practices that focus on gleaning information from scientific texts, reason with data representations, and apply key scientific models, theories, and processes. The 8 practices are: a) Comprehending scientific presentations b) Investigating design c) Reasoning from data d) Evaluating conclusions with evidence

science e) Working with findings f) Expressing scientific information g) Scientific theories h) Probability and statistics There are 3 broad science areas: a) physical science (40%), b) life science (40%), and c) earth and space science (20%)-the 41 subtopic areas reflect high-school-level curricula and what is most relevant to adults. Content from these 3 areas will focus on human health & living systems and energy & related systems

science Like the 2002 test, the 2014 will not require test-takers to know science content of facts beyond a broad knowledge of concepts. Our job as teachers will be to teach how to do science. Item types will include multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank, short answer, drag-and-drop, and hot spots.

social studies The social studies test includes content from 97 sub-topics that are aligned with one of the eleven new social studies practices. This is a huge amount of content. The consistent thread: high level reasoning skills. There will be four content domains: a) civics & government (50%), b) United States history (20%), c) geography & the world (15%), and economics (15%). Test-takers are expected to have broad familiarity with the concepts.

Social studies Social Studies Core Practices: a) Drawing conclusions and making inferences b) Determining central ideas, hypotheses, & conclusions c) Analyze events & ideas d) Interpreting meaning of symbols, words, & phrases e) Analyzing purpose & point of view f) Integrating content presented in different ways g) Evaluating reasoning & evidence h) Analyzing relationships between texts i) Writing analytic response to source texts

Social studies j) Reading & interpreting graphs, charts, & other data k) Measuring the center of a statistical dataset Three new skills have been added to the 2014 test: a) analyzing relationships between texts, b) writing analytic responses to source texts, & c) reading and interpreting graphs & charts. The four content domains will be focused on 2 distinct themes: development of modern liberties & democracy, and dynamic responses in societal systems.

Social studies The social studies test will now have an extended response that will be 25 minutes in length. It will require the test-taker to analyze one or more texts in order to produce a writing sample. The computer will score based upon the following 3 traits: a) first- how well does test-taker analyze arguments & gather evidence from the source text so to support position? b) second- how well developed & organized is the sample? c) third- how well doe s the test-taker demonstrate conventions of Edited American English?

Social studies Item types will include multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank/short answer, drag-and-drop, hot spot, and extended response. Stimulus materials may include brief text, maps, graphs, and tables, drawn from “the Great American Conversation”, such as the Bill of Rights, or from primary and secondary source documents such as political speeches and commentaries.

Reasoning through language arts (rla)
The two biggest changes in language arts are the greater emphasis on reasoning skills in the context of argumentative text and a new essay requirement, called Extended Response, which requires the test-taker to analyze one or more source texts to produce a writing. Unlike the 2002 test, the 2014 exam will group ALL language arts under a single test comprised of reading comprehension, writing, and language convention & usage.

rla 75% of the RLA will be informational texts-including nonfiction drawn from science, social studies, and workplace documents. We will need to change the reading content in our programs to emphasize informational texts and include complex texts Candidates will be asked to determine main ideas, points of view, meanings of words & phrases, and inference & claims.

rla Compared to the 2002 test, the 2014 RLA exam will add the following reasoning skills: a) analyze how individuals, events, and ideas develop & interact over the course of a text b) analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences or paragraphs relate to each other and the whole c) determine author purpose & point of view, and how it is conveyed and shapes the content & style of a text d) evaluate the argument & specific claims in a text e) analyze how 2 or more texts address similar themes

rla The Extended Response portion will present examinees with real-world situations where they can demonstrate their ability to develop an argument and support their ideas with text-based evidence (side-by-side passages, one in the RLA and the other in Social Studies). There will no longer be an expository prompt. Test-takers will be evaluated (by the computer) on the following 3 traits: a) analysis of argument & use of evidence, b) development of ideas & structure, and c) clarity & command of standard English conventions.

rla Reading and writing programs need to be melded together, and writing must become an integral part of both science and social studies curriculum. Proficient keyboarding skills are now a must: follow web site navigation prompts, use a mouse, open/close informational windows, use a scroll bar, access item content on multiple pages via tabs, select answers on a coordinate plane grid, type on a keyboard, understand what symbols are allowed in short and long answer response, use backspace/delete keys, select & move words, use editing tools, copy paste, use undo/redo, use tracking tools, flag items, use drag & drop, use hot spots.

The Language Conventions and Usage section of the 2014 test will shift
rla The Language Conventions and Usage section of the 2014 test will shift from the multiple-choice selection used on the 2002 Series, to drop-down menus for the answer choices. It is my opinion that we should all be using and Access 21st Century. The district purchased these for all of us. As with other test sections, item types will include multiple choice, fill-in- the-blank, drag & drop, and drop-down. Extended Response is new.

A description of the item types
Extended Response (ER) Item ER allows test-takers to demonstrate their written communication skills and analysis of text at a high DOK level by producing a writing sample in response to a prompt. The 2 ERs will be in the RLA and the social studies portion of the test. Response will be to textual source materials. Short Answer (SA) Item The science test will feature SA items that assess higher-level cognitive skills. A short paragraph will be required in response to graphical and/or textual stimuli.

A description of the item types
Drag-and- Drop Item Drag-and Drop items have 2 parts: drag tokens and drop targets. Test-takers will be given several drag tokens which must be places on one or more specified drop targets. This may be in response to sequencing, reordering, graphing, mapping, etc. Hot Spot Item Hot Spot items typically contain a graphic with virtual “sensors” places within key-locations of the graphic. The test-taker either clicks on the correct sensor, or graphs a point onto it.

A description of the item types
Drop-Down Item Drop-Down items contain responses opportunities embedded directly within a text. This will primarily be used to assess language skills. The test-taker will have a text with 5-8 drop-down menus embedded within it. Fill-in-the-Blank (FIB) Item The test-taker will be required to supply a word, short phrase, or numerical answer in response to an open-stem question.

A description of item types
Multiple Choice (MC) Item MC items will continue to appear in all 4 content areas. Each MC will have 4 answer options-only one will be correct. Item Scenarios The math, science and social studies tests will feature item scenarios made of a stimuli and 2-3 associated items. Stimuli may be a short text, graphic, or combination of the two.

A description of item types and scoring
Discrete Item The math, science, and social studies will also include discrete, or single items, that may or may not have a stimulus embedded within them. Scoring Raw test scores will be converted to a score of points on each test. The minimum passing score for high school equivalency will be 150 on each test, for a total of 600 for the battery. Where the 2002 test allowed a passing score of 410, but requires a 450 to pass, there will now be one single score.

Depth of knowledge (dok) lesson guide
Level 1: Recall-the student is able to recall facts & information Activity Suggestions/Prompts recall or recognize a fact, term, definition, procedure, or property demonstrate a rote response use a well-known formula represent in words or diagrams a scientific or mathematical concept perform a routine procedure or set of steps identify, calculate, or measure make a timeline, chart write in your own words, or report to class

Activity Suggestions/Prompts
Dok lesson guide write a brief outline, explain the event, process, or story write a summary or paraphrase of an event Level 2: Working with Skills and Concepts-the student is able to apply skills and show understanding of underlying skills Activity Suggestions/Prompts explain the relationship between facts, terms, properties, & variables describe examples & non-examples of concepts select a procedure and perform it formulate a routine problem given data & conditions

Dok lesson guide collect/display, organize, represent, & compare data make a decision as to how to approach a problem classify, organize, & estimate compare data & make observations interpret information from a simple graph construct a model by moving pieces to form a logical model choose from several explanations for the process in an activity & write an explanation map the relationship of the concepts define the logical order of steps, or reorder the series

Activity Suggestions/Prompts
Dok lesson guide Level 3: Strategic Thinking-the student exhibits deep knowledge using reasoning, planning, & evidence; cognitive demands are complex & abstract; questioning is multi-level & requires student to explain his/her thinking Activity Suggestions/Prompts use a Venn Diagram show compare/contrast design a flowchart classify concepts or events evaluate two sources of information interpret information from a complex graph use reasoning, planning, & evidence

Dok lesson guide explain thinking beyond a simple explanation by only a word or two justify a response when more than one option is available identify research questions use concepts to solve non-routine problems with more than one answer form conclusions from observed data complete a multi-step problem that involves planning & reasoning provide an explanation of a principle cite evidence and develop a logical argument for concepts conduct a designed investigation

Activity Suggestions/Prompts
Dok lesson guide Level 4: Extended Thinking-the student must demonstrate complex reasoning, experimental design, & planning Activity Suggestions/Prompts Select or devise an approach among many alternatives to solve a problem Based on data from a complex experiment, deduce the fundamental relationship between several controlled variables Conduct an investigation; analyze its data; form conclusions Relate ideas within the content areas Develop generalizations of the results obtained and the strategies used & apply them to new problem situations Create graphs, tables, & charts w/out instructor help

Lesson plan design (refer to samples given)
Lesson Plan Title II. Common Core State Standards (refer to website provided) III. GED Assessment Targets IV. Time V. Objective (write this as an outcome that you expect from the students) VI. Required Materials VII. Anticipatory Set (activate student’s background knowledge-be motivating & interesting-this is “the hook”) Try the following: brainstorm, share real-life examples, pose a real-life problem or scenario

Lesson Plan design (refer to samples given)
VIII. Instruction (relate to objective, involve student activity, build skills) Try the following: think-pair-share, debate, “why” questioning, scenario examination/case studies, Socratic questioning, group compare/contrast, group examination of examples, group discussion, diagrams, timeline, tables, & charts, pair & double-pair, evaluating a text for examples, modeling a thought or process, build a close reading, working w/manipulatives, stations, role-playing, questioning, peer teaching

Lesson plan design (refer to samples given)
IX. Guided Practice (I do/we do/you do) X. Application (student demonstrates proficiency of intended goal) Reflection (What have you done? What have you learned? How can you improve? What’s next?) XII. Assessment Start a binder by subject area; save and file your lesson plans.

2014 GED Test Webinar Archive
websites Common Core Standards GED Testing Services 2014 GED Test Webinar Archive

websites Teacher Resources (membership option) NYC Department of Education Depth of Knowledge Website English Language Informational Text-Reading Professional Development Module

websites Mathematics: Kindergarten through Twelve Standards for Mathematical Practice Professional Development Module Guide to the Common Core Standards: Kentucky Adult Education CCSS Presentations and Webinars

websites Hess’ Cognitive Rigor Matrix & Curricular Examples for Math/Science and Reading/Writing Math & Science knowledge/cognitive_rigor_matrix_math_science.pdf Reading and Writing knowledge/cognitive_rigor_matrix_reading_writing.pdf

websites GED 2014 Curriculum Blueprint Writing and Conversational Prompts