Transnational Non-State Actors Transnational actors –actors acting ACROSS state borders Transnational politics “…interaction across state borders outside the central control of foreign policy organs” (Nye, 224) Examples?
The Power of Numbers International NGOs 1964:1,470 1972:2173 1985:14,000 2003:24,000 Source: Yearbook of International Organizations Example: Green Peace; offices in 37 countries
The Power of Information and Technology The Multilateral Agreement on Investments (MAI) –Rules to facilitate international investments –Negotiated under the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Public Citizen –Campaign against MAI Treaty abandoned
The Power of the Media Aljazeera Save the Whales campaign –Most whaling states stopped whaling –Ban on commercial whaling
The Power of Resources Sales of select MNCs ($) Wall-Mart 219.8bn GM177.2bn RD Shell135.2bn Toyota MC120.8bn IBM85.7bn PepsiCo26.9bn Greenpeace 0.157bn Source: Nye 2004, 10 on business, GGYB on Greenpeace GDP of select countries ($) Saudi Arabia242bn Ukraine 218 bn Denmark155.5 bn Chile151 bn Norway143 bn Iraq58 bn Dominican R 53 bn Bulgaria50.6 bn Gambia 2.6 bn Congo2.5 bn Suriname1.5 bn Belize1.28 bn Source: 2003 CIA fact book,
The Backlash -Disproportionate power of transnational actors -support corrupt governments -disproportionate share of benefits -no accountability -International institutions favor markets at expense of other values -Race to the bottom -Poverty and inequality staggering: 1.3bn live on $1/day half of global population on $2/day
Multi-Level Governance International Institutions WB, UN, WTO, IMF, UNEP Transnational Network Governance Private Trans-Governmental Public-Private National and Local Institutions
Private Governance: Corporate Social Responsibility Codes of conduct –Sullivan Principles Triple Bottom Line reporting: –Financial –Social –Environmental Example: Shell
Trends in business self-regulation and corporate responsibility
Private Governance: Certification Code of rules, principles, guidelines, reporting, monitoring mechanism against which processes are products are compared and certified Labeling to make consumer aware –Fair Trade
Trans-Governmental Networks: The New World Order? Bureaucratic cooperation among specialized government agencies and institutions Not necessarily guided by the foreign policy establishment
Trans-Governmental Networks Gore-Chernomyrdin Commission (1995-98) –U.S.-Russian Joint Commission on Economic and Technical Assistance –Managing and securing nuclear material –Transfer of know how and assistance
Trans-Governmental Networks Cities for Climate Change 579 cities participate, 8% of global CO2 emission Adopt GHG reduction policies –Baseline emissions inventory –Adopt emissions reduction target –Develop local action plan –Implement action plan –Monitor progress and report it Win-win: energy savings + CO2 emission reductions US cities savings for 1999: $70mn.
The Persistent Importance of States: Top Contributors to GHG Emissions
Public-Private Partnerships "The United Nations once dealt only with governments. By now we know that peace and prosperity cannot be achieved without partnerships involving governments, international organizations, the business community and civil society. In today's world, we depend on each other." –Kofi Annan, UN Secretary-General
The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) GAVI Partners: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation WHO UNICEF The World Bank Group Developing Country Governments Nongovernmental Organization Industrialized Country Governments Research Institutes Vaccine Industry-Industrialized Country Technical Health Institutes Vaccine Industry-Developing Country
GAVI Results 2000-2005 13 million children reached with basic vaccines 135 million children reached with new vaccines Coverage of hepatitis B vaccine in GAVI-eligible countries: 66% (was 20% in 2000)
The Demand and Supply of Public-Private Partnerships Transnational Interests Governance Gaps Agency & State Interests
Concluding Questions Why get involved in transnational governance? Is transnational governance effective? Is transnational governance legitimate? Does transnational governance strengthen or undermine the state? What is the future of international organizations?