Presentation on theme: "Paul Bordelon, School Psychologist"— Presentation transcript:
1 Managing Difficult Behaviors: An Overview of The Conflict Cycle and Verbal De-Escalation Strategies Paul Bordelon, School PsychologistIntervention and Prevention Services, FCPSKaren Glago Durocher, PhDOffice of Special Education Instruction, FCPS1
2 Objectives Provide an overview of the nature of acting out behavior Review of teacher and staff roles in the conflict cycleReview Strategies to address common problem behaviors in the classroomPaulAsk them “Why are you here today?” – Message is to have an awareness of the cycle.2
3 Managing difficult behavior is like a _______ because ________ KarenBehavior analogy
4 Managing behavior is all about what we say and do! (Colvin, 2004) PaulThumb Exercise4
5 Implementation Guidelines Manage minor problem behaviors quickly and efficientlyPlan, teach, and implement predetermined hierarchy of consequencesImplement in order consistentlyFor example for the first rule infraction-ReteachSignal occurrenceTell the student the correct responseAsk student to restate/demonstrateDisengageAVOID POWER STRUGGLESPaulUse you heirarchy…example of how to re-teach.Signal the occurance – “You didn’t follow this rule”Disengage so there is no power struggle!Stick with heiarchy of consequences…so negative attention isnt inadvertantly reinforced! Kids use maladaptive coping skills to get out of work.
6 Hierarchy of Consequences Level 1: Class Verbal ReminderLevel 2: Nonverbal CuesLevel 3: Student Specific Reminder/ModificationLevel 4: Private ConferenceLevel 5: Time Away ( in- or out-of-class)Level 6: Parent ConferenceLevel 7: TIME OUT ROOMPaulConsequence does not equal punishment- It’s just another teaching opportunity.You should have a plan in place…do the kids know it??Classroom should have an hiearchy of consequences….CONSISTENCY!!!!!Punishment not the same as “consequences”
7 Steps 1-4: Emphasis on prevention and teaching KarenThis model describes the escalated behavior pattern in 7 phases.Complete a review of the cycle pointing out that it is likely the teacher will need to deescalate and recover as well. Discuss what this will look like.Deescalation can take a long time for child and teacherTeacher needs recovery time as wellTeacher needs to address the class at some point to remind expectations, safety.Emphasis “Time”…may not recover in the same day…kid needs space!Steps 1-4: Emphasis on prevention and teachingSteps 5-7: Emphasis on safety, crisis management, re-entry and follow-up procedures7
8 KarenFocus on first four: preventiveLet’s see what calm can look like
9 Calm Phase Overall student behavior is cooperative and acceptable. Respond to teacher directions and praiseAccept corrective feedbackEngages in and completes workIgnore distractions and/or inappropriate behaviors of othersKaren
10 Proactive Strategies for Maintaining Calm Phase Analyze design of physical space of the classroomCreate a practical scheduleEstablish high classroom expectations for allUse predictable classroom routinesManage instruction, incorporate best practicesTeach behaviors while studentsare in calm phasePLAN IT OUT!Classroom design and visual schedules can impact behavior. Schedules should be considered for all levels and ages.Kids and Teacher what do look for and listen for in your “calm”Relationship building is so important! Use child-centered language – child first.
12 Trigger PhaseTriggers also referred to as setting events, aversive stimuli, antecedents, etc.Overall behavior is a series of unresolved conflictsSchool-based examplesRepeated failures, frequent corrections,teasing, conflicts with other students, etc…Nonschool-based examplesArgument with parent, no breakfast,substance abuse, family member illness,Inadequate, sleep, etc…PaulElicit possible triggers for their current studentsPossible examples:Need for attention not being metChanges in routinePeer provocationPressureIneffective problem solvingAcademic challengesNon school basedHigh needs homesHealth problemsNutrition needsInadequate sleepDual diagnosis which lead to negative medication interactionsSubstance abuseDeviant peer groups
13 Pre-correction Strategies for Trigger Phase Identify the context (trigger) and predictable behavior problemSpecify expected behaviorsModify the contextConduct behavior rehearsalsProvide strong reinforcement for occurrences of expected behaviorsPrompt expected behaviorsPaulVideo 1 – Proactive Behavior– T-shirt videoShow example of trigger –Show nonexampleMake notes during vide: share out things teacher could have done differentlyPlay second part of video better exampleSelf-Reflection: Discuss what happens when we become the trigger or been triggered by a student’s behavior?
15 Signs of Agitation (Increases or Decreases in Behavior) Observe student’s body languageLimited eye contact/veiled eyesBusy hands – tapping pencils, rubbing legs, wringing handsMoving in and out of groups with no goal directed purposeOff task/head downStarring into spaceListen to student’s responseUnwillingness to talk/disrespectful toneClose ended short responsesPaulThis is where your background knowledge of your students is crucial. We need to know the student’s behavioral “baseline” before we can be attune to a change in their behavior. Phase can last short or long time!Video clip: Reducing AgitationWatch non-example: What could this teacher have done differently?Watch example: This is where knowing your students really comes into play…15
16 Agitation Phase Occurs due to an inability to handle trigger Noticeable change in behaviorRise in level of stressLoss of attention and concentrationIncrease in off-task behaviorMay last a long timeSignals the possibility that an acting-out behavior may developPrime opportunity to intervene and change the course of the behavior (and quite possibly your day!)PaulThis is a prime opportunity to intervene. Can last 20 minutes or all day!Possibility/Signal that more severe behavior can occur…last chance to intervene!16
17 Calming Strategies for Managing the Agitation Phase Offer teacher empathyAssist student with taskProvide spaceOffer assurances and additional timePermit preferred activities (within set parameters)Change activities (independent, passive, movement)Maintain teacher proximityUse student self-management where appropriatePaulThis is not the time to teach or process new strategies. This is about the student’s needs and not the adults. This is not the time to prove a point.Warning: Failure to respond to the student’s needs can send the student rapidly into the acceleration phase.Self-Reflection: Discuss what happens when we miss the cues? Emphasis NOT touching!17
19 Acceleration PhaseBehavior becomes focused and directed typically at staffQuestioning and arguingNoncompliance and defianceDisruptive behaviorsProvoking of othersLimit testingWhining and cryingInappropriate verbalizations (e.g., threats)Destruction of property…KarenTalk about how I feel when agitated…heart races, etc.!19
20 Defusing Strategies for Managing the Acceleration Phase (Last Opportunity to Avoid Peak Behavior) Consciously avoid escalating prompts that lead to more serious behaviors:ShoutingEngaging in power strugglesMoving into the student’s spaceTouching the studentSudden or very quick movementsUsing “put-down” statementsBecoming defensive and arguingCommunicating anger and frustration through body languageKarenAt this phase, student will try to engage staff; response may escalate behavior.Talking point: This now becomes all about you and your response. It takes two to dance in a power struggle.Talk about personal space…need more when accelerated20
21 Remain calm, detached, and respectful PAUSE – The most powerful response is no immediate response.Realize the student is playing a gameDon’t take it personally!Use your predetermined proceduresUtilize non-confrontational limit-setting proceduresEstablish initial set-upPresent the information as a decisionFollow-throughKarenDo not take the student’s behavior personally despite their efforts to make it personal. When ignoring low level remarks/behavior, a student’s behavior may ramp up temporarily as the staff members resists the power struggle. This is not the time to discuss consequences.21
22 Remember. . . Proxemics Kinesics Verbal and Nonverbal Response Sarcasm PaulProxemics:As individuals personal space varies greatly depending size, age, gender, role, relationship, and cultural background.Typically a person’s personal space will range from 1.5 to 3 feet (imagine a hula hoop)Personal space can include personal belongings such as backpacks, coats, and I-pods.Anxiety generally affects a person’s comfort zoneKinesics:Approach the student in a non-threatening mannerMove slowly and deliberatelyMinimize body languageKeep a reasonable distanceStaff posturing (avoid leaning into students, point, and puffing upVerbal and Nonverbal Response:Facial expressions: avoid glaring, staring, eye rollsAvoid sarcasm-be genuineTone should be calm, patient, and attentiveVolume should be appropriate for the settingCadence should be at an even rate and rhythmSarcasm
23 Use non-confrontational limit-setting procedures. Step 1: Restate expectations in calm mannerStep 2: Present the information as a choicePresent the desired behavior and the consequence if he/she does not comply as a decision for the student to makeAllow time for the student to decideWithdraw from the student, attend to other students or engage in some other taskStep 3: Follow through and ignore low level negative statements and see them for what they are…face-saving remarksPaulRemember: Less is more when talking to the student. Return to your predetermined hierarchy
24 Steps 1-4: Emphasis on prevention and teaching PaulThis model describes the escalated behavior pattern in 7 phases.Complete a review of the cycle pointing out that it is likely the teacher will need to deescalate and recover as well. Discuss what this will look like.Deescalation can take a long time for child and teacherTeacher needs recovery time as wellTeacher needs to address the class at some point to remind expectations, safety.Emphasis “Time”…may not recover in the same day…kid needs space!Steps 1-4: Emphasis on prevention and teachingSteps 5-7: Emphasis on safety, crisis management, re-entry and follow-up procedures24
25 Five Key Points Conflict is unavoidable and natural Conflict is manageable- You can do it!Intervene early and often for best resultsPause-Often the most powerful response is no immediate response.Think- What predetermined step should occur next?Don’t take it personallyPaul25
26 Final Thought Geoff Colvin (1989): It is always important to remember that “if you inadvertently assist the student to escalate, do not be concerned; you will get another chance to do it right the next time around.”Paul/Karen26