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The World Cup: A Fair Game?

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The World Cup: A Fair Game?
World Cup 2014 – Maths Themed Activities

Activity 1: What are the chances? An equal opportunity?

PROBABILITY True or false?
Brazil is very unlikely to win the World Cup. England has a 1/32 chance of winning the World Cup. A team from Africa has the same chance of winning the World Cup as a team from Europe. Does every team have the same chance of winning? Use these statements to introduce the idea of probability statements and fractions in relation to the World Cup. Pupils will find out the answers to each during the activity. 1 = false 2 = true 3 = false

There are 32 countries taking part in the World Cup.
Each team has the same number of players. Each team will play by the same rules. What else is the same about the World Cup teams? Ask pupils: Do you think all countries competing in the World Cup have an equal chance of winning? Encourage pupils to consider: Previous winners Players A countries’ resources Why? Why not?

PROBABILITY – FRACTIONS
The total teams in the World Cup: 32/32

PROBABILITY FRACTIONS
What is the probability of: Any team winning the World Cup? A team from Group A winning the World Cup? A team from Group D winning the World Cup? A country with the colour red used in its flag winning the World Cup? What is the probability of: Any team winning the World Cup? 1/32 A team from Group A winning the World Cup? 1/8 A team from Group D winning the World Cup? 1/8 A country with the colour red used in its flag winning the world cup? 24/32 = 3/4 You could ask pupils to create their own probability questions.

PROBABILITY – STATEMENTS
FIFA rankings of teams The chances of winning are not as simple as finding a fraction. Fifa ranks each team depending on how well they have performed in the past. Ask pupils to now make statements about how likely they think each team is to win based on their ranking.

PROBABILITY – STATEMENTS
Even chance Impossible More likely Highly unlikely Unlikely Likely Highly likely Certain Less likely The team is to win the World Cup because The team is to win the World Cup than the team because Ask pupils to make statements based on FIFA rankings for different teams/groups and to give reasons. They can look at individual teams, groups, or teams from different continents. Pupils should use the FIFA ranking evidence to justify their answers. For example: The Spain team is certain to win the World Cup because they are ranked no1 by FIFA. The Brazil team is more likely to win the World Cup than the France team because they are ranked twice as high on the FIFA rankings. NOTE – there are more European teams as FIFA allocates them more places – this makes them statistically more likely to win the World Cup than other continents. However, the FIFA rankings also show teams from Europe have higher rankings than teams from Africa (for example). This means it is more likely a team from Europe will win based on both there being more teams, and them having higher rankings. A team from group is to win the World Cup than a team from group because A team from Europe is to win the World Cup than a team from Africa because

Why isn’t it equal? Why do some teams have a greater chance of winning? Why do teams from some continents have a greater chance of winning? Are there any football reasons? Are there any non-football reasons? Now ask pupils to think about the REASONS why a team may be more or less likely to win First consider footballing reasons - a team may have a star player, a very good manager, worked really hard on the training pitch But also consider non-footballing reasons - a team may have more resource to train than other teams, the players may get paid more, the country may have more money to spend supporting grassroots football.

Reasons for teams being more/less likely to win the World Cup…
Explore this question in more depth asking the question ‘why’ to interrogate deeper answers to come up with a list for the class/group. For example: No, because some teams are not as good. Why are some teams not as good. Some teams are not as good because they don’t train as much. Why don’t some teams train as much? Because some teams don’t have a lot of money in their country to spend on football. Why don’t they have as much money? Encourage pupils to consider if it is fair that some countries seem to have a better chance than others based on any non-football reasons. They will explore this in more detail in the next activity. How much is this related to things outside of football itself? Is this fair?

World Cup Country Incomes
Activity 2: World Cup Country Incomes Global Inequality

COUNTRY INCOMES The World Bank classifies each country as either:
a high income country an upper-middle income country a lower-middle income country a low income country Which do you think each of these countries is? Explain that the World Bank is a global bank which lends money to different countries. Explain that they pay close attention to the wealth of countries – meaning how much money each country has. They call this a country’s ‘income’, which they work out as an average per person to be able to compare countries with more or fewer people. To calculate it they add up the total amount of money being made in that country over the year. They then divide this by the number of people in the country. They do this calculation in dollars so they can compare all countries fairly. This is called the GDP per capita, which you can just call the ‘income per person’ in the country. Discuss the term income and the four classifications. Which types of country are the richest? (High income) Which types of country are the poorest? (Low income) Ask the pupils which classification they think each of the countries shown are. Ask pupils why they think this. Brazil – upper middle USA – high Ivory Coast – lower-middle England - high Brazil USA England Ivory Coast

\$7748 \$1244 \$22442 \$46731 \$9386 \$38920 \$33816 \$14703 \$11340 \$1167 \$13879 \$9749 \$67442 \$15452 \$45960 \$28274 \$5425 \$39746 \$2323 \$78928 \$11573 \$4556 \$7228 \$2722 \$42597 \$1605 \$20175 \$51749 \$5348 \$43399 \$22590 \$14037 These 32 sums of money represent the incomes (per person) of the 32 World Cup countries. Find the highest income. Who do you think that belongs to? (Answer – Switzerland) Find the lowest income. Who do you think that belongs to? (Answer – Cameroon) Which is England? (38920) Which is Brazil? (11340) Source: World Bank (2012)

INEQUALITY Was there a big difference between the country incomes?
This is called income inequality. Inequality means the difference in resources or opportunities for one group of people versus another. Clarify the meaning of inequality with pupils.

WORLD CUP COUNTRY INCOMES
1. Make a map of the country incomes for World Cup countries. Where are most of the wealthier countries? 2. Make a tally of the country incomes. How wealthy are the World Cup countries? 3. Compare the incomes of the higher and lower income countries. How large is income inequality in the World Cup? Show pupils the map and country income threshold groups. Explain the task. After pupils have made their tallies, support them to turn them into fractions and percentages. You can also help them to compare incomes of countries using ratios. They will find the ratio of income of the highest 3 teams to the lowest 3 teams is 25:1 – therefore the highest income teams have 25x more income per person than the lowest income teams.

WORLD CUP COUNTRY INCOMES
What do you notice? What fraction or percentage of the World Cup teams are from different income brackets? Did you draw a graph to show this visually? Are there any low income countries at all? Why not? Share the maps pupils have coloured in. Ask pupils: where are the poorest countries? Where in the world are the wealthiest countries? Look at results generated on tally chart. Discuss findings. Encourage pupils to make statements about what they have found. Examine maps from previous session. Where in the world are most of the high income countries? Why do you think this is? Where in the world are most of the low income countries? What does this say about equality throughout the world? Begin to use the language most, some etc then encourage the pupils to think of a more statistical way to present the information.

COMPARING WEALTH To help understand this, lets look at the income inequality between the higher and lower income countries in the World Cup. Use the worksheet to help you make ratios. What ratio did you find? Show pupils the map and country income threshold groups. Explain the task. After pupils have made their tallies, support them to turn them into fractions and percentages. You can also help them to compare incomes of countries using ratios.

COMPARING WEALTH Can you compare the ratios of the top 3 and bottom 3 World Cup countries average incomes? Highest 3 incomes: av. \$66,000 Lowest 3 incomes: av. \$1,300 Ratio = 66 : 1.3 = 66 / 1.3 = 51 = 51:1 This means the richest 3 countries have 51x more money per person than the poorest 3 in the World Cup. Is this fair? You can also help them to compare incomes of countries using ratios. They will find the ratio of income of the highest 3 teams to the lowest 3 teams is 51:1 – therefore the highest income country teams have on average 51x more income per person in their countries than the lowest income country teams. Is this fair?

LOW INCOME COUNTIRES So why are there no low income countries in the World Cup at all? What can richer countries do with this extra money that gives them an advantage over them? Is it because everyone born in low income countries is bad at football? Is it because these countries don’t like football? Why might a country that does not have a lot of money not end up competing in large scale tournaments like the World Cup? Using the inequality ratio they calculated, encourage pupils to consider how this extra financial resource can support richer countries better than poorer countries.

WHY? Think about things which extra income can do to help affect:
football teams directly (such as training resources, kit) and also indirectly (such as better healthcare and education for children). Get pupils to think about how a countries wealth can affect football directly and indirectly. Direct is things like better facilities for football teams. Indirect is things like how healthy kids are growing up, how much money fans have to spend on their teams.

Example – African football
There are 54 countries in Africa. In most of them people love football. For example, the African Cup of Nations is extremely popular. Source:

Which African teams? But although the majority of countries in Africa play football, only the more wealthy African countries are playing in the World Cup. Country Income per person Income group World cup appearances Nigeria 2,450 Lower middle 6 Cameroon 2,270 5 Tanzania 609 Low Malawi 268 Images: Wikipedia: Samuelejiwunmi Harriet Griffin / Oxfam

Which African teams? People in Malawi and Tanzania love football. So why do they struggle to participate in the World Cup? Is it partly due to being a low income country? Is this fair? Fans in the Kamuzu stadium in Malawi Source: ttp://http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kamuzu_Stadium_w%C3%A4hrend_des_Spiels_Malawi_-_%C3%84gypten,_2008.jpg

STATEMENTS AND GENERALISATIONS
The more money a country has… Wealthy countries are… Most… European countries… Inequality in the world cup is.. Use as sentence starters.

IS THIS FAIR? If a high income country has more money to invest in football, what else would it have more money to invest in? If a low income country has less money to invest in football, what else would it have less money to invest in? Would you prefer to grow up in a high / middle / low income country? Why? Choose a team to support through the tournament. Will you choose a high / middle / low income country? Why? Discuss Is football fair?

STATEMENTS – WORLD CUP DISPLAY
Why are some teams more likely to win the World Cup? STATEMENTS – WORLD CUP DISPLAY Pupils rehearse their statements with a partner, ensuring they use the language some / most / usually to be clear. Pupils write their statements on flag for the World Cup Display.

KS2 WORLD CUP DATA What fraction of the World Cup countries have a high income? What fraction of the World Cup countries have an upper-middle income? What fraction of the World Cup countries have a lower-middle income? What fraction of the World Cup countries have a low income? What fraction of countries have a high-income and are in the Fifa top 16? What fraction of countries have a lower-middle income and are in the Fifa top 16? What fraction of upper-middle income countries are in the Fifa top 16? What fraction of low income countries are in the Fifa top 16? This can be used as an extension for the activity with KS2 What fraction of the World Cup countries have a high income? 19/32 What fraction of the World Cup countries have an upper-middle income? 8/32 What fraction of the World Cup countries have a lower-middle income? 5/32 What fraction of the World Cup countries have a low income? 0/32 What fraction of countries have a high-income and are in the Fifa top 16? 13/32 What fraction of countries have a lower-middle income and are in the Fifa top 16? 0/32 What fraction of upper-middle income countries are in the Fifa top 16? 3/32 What fraction of low income countries are in the Fifa top 16? 0/32

*Fifa classifies Australia and Iran as Asian and Russia as European!
KS3 WORLD CUP DATA What fraction of the World Cup countries have a high income? What fraction of the World Cup countries have a low income? What fraction of countries have a high-income and are in the Fifa top 16? What fraction of countries have a lower-middle income and are in the Fifa top 16? What percentage of World Cup countries are in Europe? What percentage of World Cup countries are in Africa? What percentage of World Cup countries are in Asia? What percentage of World Cup countries are in North and Central America? What percentage of World Cup countries are in South America? *Fifa classifies Australia and Iran as Asian and Russia as European! This can be used as an extension for the activity with KS3. What fraction of the World Cup countries have a high income? 19/32 What fraction of the World Cup countries have a low income? 0/32 What fraction of countries have a high-income and are in the Fifa top 16? 13/32 What fraction of countries have a lower-middle income and are in the Fifa top 16? 0/32  Rounded to one decimal place, what percentage of World Cup countries are in Europe? % What percentage of World Cup countries are in Africa? % What percentage of World Cup countries are in Asia? 12.5% What percentage of World Cup countries are in North and Central America? 12.5% What percentage of World Cup countries are in South America? 18.75%

Activity 3: Equality Scores

TOP TRUMPS Talk through the meaning of each piece of information:
Fifa Rankings: How well Fifa rate the team depending on past performances. A LOWER SCORE IS BETTER Country income: How much money a country generates in a year divided by the amount of people in that country. Countries are either High, Upper-Middle, Lower-Middle or Low Income Countries A HIGHER SCORE IS BETTER Equality Score: (A LOWER SCORE IS MORE EQUAL) Shows how unequal a country is. It measures how fairly the wealth of the country is distributed amongst the citizens. Either play in groups of four or as a whole class. Group of 4 Version (Five sets per class of 30) Pupils distribute the cards so they each have eight each. Player on left of dealer decides which data they are playing. Player calls out their score. Players should then call out the best score they have in that category. Player with the highest score in that category takes the cards. Pupils should begin to understand that having a low country income or high equality score can be. Whole class version: Print and trim one set of 32 cards. Distribute amongst pupils. Start with Fifa rating – the person with the highest score (1) starts. Pupils then line up in order of their Fifa score. Once complete – ask pupils if they can remember which country is where. What countries do they expect to be near the front of the line? Which countries do they expect to be near the back? Change and play for country. Play for Equality Score (this will help with understanding in the main maths lessons).

INEQUALITY WITHIN COUNTRIES
Now look at one of the countries on the globe. Does everyone in this country have the same amount of money as everyone else? Within countries, some people always have more money than others. Some countries are more equal than others. This is within country inequality. Inequality within some countries is worse than in others. How could this cause problems?

INEQUALITY WITHIN COUNTRIES
Each of the World Cup countries has been given a score to show how equal or unequal they are. A score of 0 means that the country is completely equal – that everyone in that country has the same amount of money. That would look something like this: In reality, no country looks like this. Make clear to the pupils that in this fictitious example, everyone in the country has the same amount of money – there is no income inequality here. This may seem like a good idea though there could be issues with this. Would it be fair if everyone earned the same amount of money? What would the problems be with this? (Some people might not work hard for their share of the money / some people might deserve it more for working harder.)

INEQUALITY WITHIN COUNTRIES
A score of 1.0 means the country is completely unequal. This would look something like this: 1 In reality, thankfully, no country looks like this either. Be clear that in this situation is the opposite – completely unequal. Would you like to be in this position? Would you like to be considerably richer than everyone else? Would you like to be the other side – having nothing? Explain that this is not true in any country either.

FAIRNESS SCORE EXAMPLES
Plot the 4 countries below Which is fairest? Are there any surprises? Where do you think England would score? Completely Equal Completely Unequal NOTE – point out that the scale is from 0.25 to 0.55 because generally ‘high’ inequality is near to 0.5 and ‘low’ inequality below 0.3 – therefore the full scale of 0.00 – 1.00 is not necessary. Which do they think are the fairest? Of the 4 example countries here, the order of most to least equal distribution of income are: Japan(most equal) – Cameroon –USA - Brazil (least equal) Pupils may be surprised that Brazil has quite higher inequality, and Cameroon is better than the USA Where would England be? ANSWER – 0.36 – same as Cameroon Source of inequality statistics: Frederick Solt, 2013, "The Standardized World Income Inequality Database", version 4.0, September USA 0.37 Brazil 0.46 Cameroon 0.36 Japan 0.29

World Cup Groups Fairness Winners
Task: Look at the equality scores for the World Cup countries. You will look at the countries in 1 group. Order the scores from lowest to highest for your group. Which countries are the most equal in your group? Which countries are the least equal in your group? What is the average in your group? How does your average compare to other groups averages? (Remember: a score of 0 means the country is perfectly Equal).

Equality Winners Work with the other people in your class.
Snowballing Task: Work with the other people in your class. Find out which country is the most and least equal in each group. Record your findings in your table. What do you think you will find? Which of the World Cup countries do you think are the most equal? For this snowballing task, after sorting their own groups, pupils approach one another and exchange data. Pupils collect the eight most equal World Cup countries and the eight least equal World Cup countries. Pupils then order them to find the best and worst equality scores overall.

CHALLENGE Choose a set of data to show fairness scores on a bar chart.
This could be: a continent, such as Europe the Fifa Group you started the activity with the lowest fairness scores the highest fairness scores. Challenge: Could you represent the mean fairness scores for each continent? For KS2 pupils the intervals have been added to help them plot the information. To challenge KS3 pupils, they will need to look at their data and decide which number to start from.

KS2 Extension Equality Winners Equality Score Country

KS3 Extension Equality Winners

DOES A COUNTRY GET FAIRER AS IT GETS RICHER?
Further Activity DOES A COUNTRY GET FAIRER AS IT GETS RICHER? Extension Is there a relationship between wealth of a nation and equality within a nation? Would you expect a country to get fairer as it gets richer?

THINK IT OVER Did you find what you expected?
Which are you most surprised about, inequality between counties or inequality within countries? Do you think that it is right that some people have much more money than others? Why? What might a more equal country be like? What might a more equal country be like?

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