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 Dr. Geoff Goodman ext. 4277 Course Website:

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1  Dr. Geoff Goodman ext. 4277 Course Website:

2  Please briefly share your academic, professional, and clinical experiences.  What are your expectations for this course?Syllabus:  Did everyone receive a syllabus and relevant readings?  Class dates and holidays Psychopathologies not covered in this course:  Learning Disabilities  Mental Retardation (educational specialists)

3  Provide information about risk factors for child and adolescent psychopathology  Provide information about protective factors against the development of child and adolescent psychopathology  Provide information about the major conditions and disorders that come to clinical attention  This course does not explicitly cover information about intervention strategies.

4 Effects of emotional and behavioral problems in children  Impairments in academic achievement  Impairments in interpersonal competencies  Impairments in independent living skills  Persistence across the lifespan

5  Integrate studies of normal and pathological development  Examine developmental continuities and discontinuities of traits, behavior patterns, emotional responses, and diagnoses.  Evaluate evidence across multiple levels of analysis  a. genetic  b. biological  c. psychological  d. family  e. neighborhood  f. culture

6  Use interdisciplinary methods  Clinical and developmental psychology  Child and adolescent psychiatry  Genetics  Neurology  Public health  Philosophy of science  Explore risk and protective factors and their interaction  Use transactional models of influence  Not linear patterns of association  Probabilistic, dynamic, nonlinear, complex conceptual models  Consider social and cultural context in understanding function and meaning of behavioral and emotional states

7  Equifinality – multiple pathways yield the same psychopathological outcome (mediational models)  genetic constellation  environmental deprivation  prenatal teratogens  brain injury  different combinations of risk factors or sheer number of risk factors

8  Multifinality – same pathway to multiple psychopathological outcomes (mediational models)  Consideration of unique subgroups (moderational models):  Common genotypes  Common personality variables  Common socialization practices (e.g., secure base behavior)  Common neighborhoods  Consideration of neuroscientific principles and the role of the brain

9  Study of aberrations in normal developmental pathways  Study of normal developmental pathways  Study of normal processes can elucidate atypical processes, while study of atypical processes can elucidate normal processes  Progress in one domain depends on progress in another  Mental disorders are not discrete and categorical, but rather, dimensional and continuous (flaw with DSM-IV)  Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders  Autism-spectrum disorders

10  Developmental pathways are lawful and coherent  Developmental pathways are sometimes discontinuous (e.g. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)  Conduct Disorder (CD)  Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD))  Different continuities exist across different subgroups (e.g., outcomes of authoritarian parenting in Caucasian, middle- class children versus African American children children)

11  Examining both “micro” and “macro” levels of analysis  Connecting these various levels from gene expression to cultural expression and their mutual influence  Bottom-up and top-down conceptions must co-exist

12  Risk factors – “antecedent variables that predict such dysfunction” ( p. 13 )  Identify risk factors causal of disorder  Identify risk factors that are malleable  Protective factors (resilience; buffering) – “unexpectedly good outcomes, or competence, despite the presence of adversity or risk” ( p. 14; see Crockenberg (1981) study )  Same risk factors might produce different outcomes, depending on the presence of protective factors (multifinality)  Criticism of uniqueness of protective factors because they exist on the opposite end of the continuum with risk factors (e.g., IQ, temperament, parenting)

13  Children influence parents, teachers and peers  Parents, teachers, and peers influence children  Early maturing brain regions influence and are influenced by environmental factors  Operation of gene-environment interactions

14  Family, school, neighborhood, and culture are all central to the unfolding of both aberrant and adaptive behavior  Different cultural contexts can provide different meaning to particular behaviors (e.g., suicide)

15  Multiple risk factors related to lowered chances of recovery  Malleability, plasticity, and flexibility in development  Bi-directional influences between genes and epigenetic factors (e.g., brain structures, behavioral patterns, environmental influences)

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