Presentation on theme: "PED 392 Child Growth and Development. Home = 41% School = 32% Public Settings = 27% If 1/3 of a child's development happens at school, teachers."— Presentation transcript:
Home = 41% School = 32% Public Settings = 27% If 1/3 of a child's development happens at school, teachers should be prepared to enhance that development
60% received regular care from someone other than a parent 75% can make friends easily 66% recognize letters 94% can count to 10
Populations Ethnic diversity Special needs students Poverty Family structures Each requires different needs for those students with these situations.
Changes that occur in the child over time. The key is OVER TIME. Every child develops, some just develop at different speeds and levels.
Biological Psychoanalytical Behavioral Cognitive Contextual Which is correct?
Predetermined biological timetable All children progress through predictable stages Environment plays little or no role in the sequence of the stages
How the child relates to the environment Stages build upon each others (Piaget, Erickson, Freud) How does the child deal with different needs at different stages?
Behaviors are influenced by the environment Gradual, continuous process Punishments and rewards Albert and the rat - loud noises associated with the rat, Albert became afraid of the rat alone Pavlov’s dog - conditioned to eat with the sound of a bell – bell makes him salivate.
Cognitive Development Theories Piaget’s Theory Information Processing Theories Supercomputer Social Learning Theories Process and store social behaviors
Children pass through the same sequence of stages, but not at the same ages Piaget Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete Operational Formal Operational
Gradual increases in thinking result from increases in attention, memory and acquiring strategies for learning. The brain is like a computer, with information being entered, processed and stored. Interplay between information from the environment and the information processing system of the child Existing knowledge influences ability to learn new
Learning social behaviors Store information from observation and imitation Consequences of actions regulate behaviors The child may influence the environment in the same way the environment influences the child.
The child plays an active role in development Actively seeks different social contexts Social-cultural Ecological
Lev Vygotsky Knowledge is co-constructed between people Interactions between two people build each persons knowledge Language is a key component
Russian dolls – layers of development Child is #1 Physical and social environment are #2 Shared beliefs, values, customs are #3 Historical events (laws) is #4
Which is correct? Answer: All of them These theories combine to form a full view of the overall development of the child. Teachers should be aware of all the different theorietical approaches to development
Case studies – one person is studied; may include researcher bias Correlational studies – Associations of different variables; not cause and effect Longitudinal studies – Follows children over time to see changes; takes years to complete. Cross sectional studies – Different students at different ages at the same time; much quicker, but there are variations in subjects
Generalizability – How well the findings apply to another sample, or the general population. Ethnicity, ages, sex, social class, etc Reliability – The consistency of the measurement under similar circumstances. Can the study be done the same way, and get the same results a 2 nd time. Validity – Whether it provides an accurate measure of the phenomenon. Head size = intelligence levels?
IRB – Institutional Review Board Used for “special populations” Checks the effects of the study on the individual being studied Is it safe, no adverse affects on subjects Informed consent (parents or guardians)