Presentation on theme: "The National Dropout Prevention Center/Network"— Presentation transcript:
1 The National Dropout Prevention Center/Network Leading Graduation Rate ImprovementIn Your School & CommunityThe National Dropout Prevention Center/NetworkDr. Sandy AddisInterim Director
2 The National Dropout Prevention Center National Organizationat Clemson UniversityServices to states and schoolsResearch – Resources - TrainingConferences – Technical Assistance28 Years of DropoutPrevention Service
3 Resources and Services of The National Dropout Prevention Center Network membership, materials and discountsConferences and events (San Antonio, October, 2015)National Dropout Prevention Specialist CertificationPublications, guides, and web broadcastsConsultation and technical assistanceReviews and evaluationsTraining, speakers, workshopsGraduation Rate Planning Support
4 As a Dropout Prevention Spokesperson, You Help Determine: Local understanding of the issue.Level of educator and community focus on the issue.Selection and funding of local strategies.Local policies relative to at-risk issues.
8 Steps for Leading Graduation Rate Improvement Address the dataHighlight the costDevelop understanding of the problemHighlight the causesFocus on solutions
9 U.S. Graduation Rates (1990-2012) School reform should more appropriately be about education reform. It is not the school per se that needs to make the changes. Rather, it is the system of education that needs to make the changes.The student needs to be at the center of this effort; a student centered system is needed.The family needs to be the second most important consideration in terms of reform efforts.And, the community needs to be the third most important consideration in terms of reform.Up to recently most of our reforms have been internal to the school and these have the least amount of impact on student achievement and success.NOTE: Average Freshman Graduation Rates. Graph retrieved 1/23/15 from
10 Types of Dropout and Graduation Rates According to NCES, its indicators of school dropout and school completion include the following:Event dropout rateStatus dropout rateStatus completion rateAveraged freshman graduation rate(Non-regulatory cohort rate)Mention also the new federal regulatory graduation rate: The Adjusted Cohort Graduation Rate (only have about 3 years of data using that rate, so for trend analysis, we use Average Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR) – a simple calculation based on enrollments and numbers of diplomas awarded so many years later.(National Center for Education Statistics, Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: )
14 National Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate (AFGR) for Public High School Students, by Race/Ethnicity: School YearSource: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Common Core of Data (CCD), "NCES Common Core of Data State Dropout and Graduation Rate Data File," School Year 2011–12, Preliminary Version 1a. See CCD table at
15 The Diploma Award Gap in Texas Native AmericanAsianHispanicBlackWhiteOther% TotalEnrollment0.43%3.62%51.34%12.74%29.98%1.90%2010 % DiplomasAwarded0.52%3.73%43.07%13.35%39.32%
16 Economics of High School Dropouts Earn lessPay less in taxesRely more on public healthMore involved in criminal justice systemMore likely to use welfare services(Rotermund, California Dropout Research Project, Statistical Brief 5, September 2007)
17 Unemployment Rate by Educational Attainment 2012 Doctoral degree %Professional degree %Master’s degree %Bachelor’s degree %Associate’s degree %Some college %High school degree %Less than high school %(Bureau of Labor Statistics, May 2013,
18 Workers per Social Security Beneficiary 19703.719903.4Currently2.920302:1 ratioMercatus CenterGeorge Mason University
19 If Georgia Had a 90% Graduation Rate in 2012, There Would Be: $457 Million annual earnings increase in Georgia$342 Million annual spending increase in Georgia$824 Million increased home sales in Georgia$45 Million increased auto sales in Georgia3,850 new jobs added in Georgia$71 Million annual increase in federal tax revenue in Georgia$42 Million annual increase in state and local tax revenueAlliance for Excellence in Education, 2013
20 If Myrtle Beach Had a 90% Graduation Rate in 2012, There Would Be: $8.4 Million annual earnings increase in Myrtle Beach$6.4 Million annual spending increase in Myrtle Beach$15 Million increased home sales in Myrtle Beach$1 Million increased auto sales in Myrtle Beach60 new jobs added in Myrtle Beach$1.3 Million annual increase in federal tax revenue in Myrtle Beach$700,000 annual increase in local tax revenue in Myrtle BeachAlliance for Excellence in Education, 2013
23 PATHWAY TO DROPPING OUT Dropping out of school is the result of a long process of disengagement that may begin even before a child enters school.National Dropout Prevention Center/Network
24 Dropout Risk Factors Dropout Risk Factors and Exemplary Programs: A Technical Reportby C. Hammond, J. Smink,and S. Drew, NDPCandD. Linton, CommunitiesIn Schools, Inc.May 2007
25 Research Domain Factors IndividualFamilySchoolCommunity
26 I - Individual Domain Risk Factors High-risk demographic characteristicsEarly adult responsibilitiesHigh-risk attitudes, values, and behaviorsPoor school performanceDisengaged from schoolEducation stability
27 II – Family Domain Risk Factors 7. Background characteristics8. Level of household stress9. Family dynamics10. Attitudes, values, and beliefs about education11. Behavior related to education
28 III – School Domain Risk Factors School structureSchool resourcesStudent body characteristicsStudent body performanceSchool environmentAcademic policies and proceduresSupervision and discipline policies/practices
29 IV – Community Domain Risk Factors Location and type of communityDemographic characteristics of communityEnvironment of community
30 Reasons for Dropping Out of School Students who considered dropping out of high schoolgave these reasons for considering this option:I didn’t like the school………………………………………….. 73%I didn’t like the teachers ………………………………………. 61%I didn’t see value in the work I was being asked to do…….. 60%I had family issues …………………………………………….. 42%I needed to work for money…………………………………… 35%I was picked on or bullied……………………………………… 28%No adults in the school cared about me……………………... 24%The work was too easy………………………………………… 19%(Yazzie-Mintz, “Voices of Students on Engagement: A Report on the 2006 High School Survey of Student Engagement”)
31 What Students Say Top Five Reasons Reported by Students for Leaving School 1980Didn’t like school (33%)Poor grades (33%)Chose to work (19%)Getting married (18%)Couldn’t get along with teachers (15%)
32 What Students Say Top Five Reasons Reported by Students for Leaving School 19801988Didn’t like school (33%)Didn’t like school (51%)Poor grades (33%)Were failing school (44%)Chose to work (19%)Couldn’t get along with teachers (34%)Getting married (18%)Couldn’t keep up with school work (31%)Couldn’t get along with teachers (15%)Feel like they don’t belong at school (25%)
33 What Students Say Top Five Reasons Reported by Students for Leaving School 198019882005Didn’t like school (33%)Didn’t like school (51%)Classes were not interesting (47%)Poor grades (33%)Were failing school (44%)Missed too many days and could not catch up (43%)Chose to work (19%)Couldn’t get along with teachers (34%)Spent time with people not interested in school (42%)Getting married (18%)Couldn’t keep up with school work (31%)Too much freedom and not enough rules in my life (38%)Couldn’t get along with teachers (15%)Feel like they don’t belong at school (25%)Was failing in school (35%)
34 Understanding the Relationship Between Attendance and Graduation % Graduated in Four YearsDays Absent Per SemesterCourse cutting counted as partial days(The Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago, 2007)
35 Understanding the Relationship Between Grades and Graduation % Graduated in Four YearsAverage Freshman GradesRounded to the nearest 0.5(The Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago)
37 Effective Dropout Prevention Involves Coordinated Effort StudentFamilyCommunitySchoolSchool reform should more appropriately be about education reform. It is not the school per se that needs to make the changes. Rather, it is the system of education that needs to make the changes.The student needs to be at the center of this effort; a student centered system is needed.The family needs to be the second most important consideration in terms of reform efforts.And, the community needs to be the third most important consideration in terms of reform.Up to recently most of our reforms have been internal to the school and these have the least amount of impact on student achievement and success.
38 “Efforts to improve educational outcomes in these schools, attempting to drive change through test-based accountability, are thus unlikely to succeed unless accompanied by policies to address the out of school factors that negatively affect large numbers of our nation’s students.”(Berliner, 2009, Poverty and Potential: Out of School Factors and School Success)According to U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan, “when families learn together and where schools truly become the heart and center of a neighborhood—a community anchor—there are tremendous dividends for children.”- Duncan, A. (n.d.). Community schools: An essential strategy to support student success. Washington, DC: Coalition for Community Schools.38
42 What Role Does the Board Play? Is the Board well informed about dropout prevention efforts of the schools?Are there policies that contribute to dropping out?Do discipline policies and practices allow continued enrollment and academic success whenever possible?Are at-risk-related metrics such as attendance, discipline, and graduation rates considered in employee evaluation and rewards?Does the Board encourage staff to learn more about dropout prevention?
43 Consider Graduation Rate Impact When Dealing With Big Issues RetentionAttendanceGrades
44 Board Graduation Rate Considerations Boards establish the point at which we cut students off from school.Boards set the guidelines for “rule implementation”.Boards define how professional educators make decisions for wounded and traumatized students.Boards must balance popular perception against best interests of individual students.Boards determine the utilization of alternative discipline options.
45 What Is the Impact of Leadership? Are leaders aware of graduation rates?Do leaders know their most at-risk students?How do leaders interact with at-risk youth?Do leaders model positive behaviors toward at-risk youth?Do leaders want troublesome students to remain enrolled?Do leaders establish physical and emotional safety of all students?
46 What is the School Climate? Does the school feel safe and inviting?Do students and parents feel good about their school?How are parent participation rates at school events?Do parents, teachers, and leaders communicate often?Is there an ongoing focus on graduation as an end goal?
47 How Does Instruction Impact Graduation Rates? Are all courses interesting to students?Do students see relevance in instruction?Are students active rather than passive learners?Is technology used to make instruction interesting?Are instructional methods and speeds varied for different students?Are numerous career pathways and career-related courses offered?
48 How Do Teachers Prevent Dropouts? Are teachers trained in at-risk factors and dropout prevention strategies?Do teachers make students feel valued and welcome?Are all students personally known by teachers?Do teachers initiate positive communications with parents and students?Do early-grade teachers own the dropout problem?
49 Administrator Resources and Actions Access resources atProvide staff and stakeholders with resources and materialsTrain staff in dropout prevention strategiesNetwork with and learn from othersInform the stakeholders and decision makers in your school, district, and community