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Dragana Filipović. Verbs that can come before another verb and add to the meaning of that verb.  He plays the guitar.  He can play the guitar.  See.

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Presentation on theme: "Dragana Filipović. Verbs that can come before another verb and add to the meaning of that verb.  He plays the guitar.  He can play the guitar.  See."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dragana Filipović

2 Verbs that can come before another verb and add to the meaning of that verb.  He plays the guitar.  He can play the guitar.  See that film.  You should see that film.


4  A modal always has the same form.  I must leave. He must leave.  A modal is followed by the infinitive.  I should know the answer but I don’t.  Questions are formed by inverting the modal and the subject.  He can swim well. – Can he swim well?  Negatives are formed by adding not (n’t).  He couldn’t come with us because he was busy.

5  Have to and need take –s in the 3 rd person singular:  He has to go.  Your hair needs to be cut. (passive full infinitive)  Your hair needs cutting. (-ing form)

6  Modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to, except for ought to and have to.  Sorry, I can’t come.  He might have phoned you when you were out.  I have to meet Sally.  You ought to see the performance.

7 Ability (in the present / future)  Can / be able to  Paul can swim fast.  I can give you back the money next week. (usual)  I will be able to give you back the money next week. (less usual, more formal)

8 Ability (in the past)  Could – for repeated actions and with the verbs see, hear, smell, understand etc. for single actions  She could play the violin when she was six. (repeated action)  I could smell something burning. (single action)  Was able to – for either repeated or single actions  She was able to play the violin when she was six.  I was able to go on a trip round the city last week. (single action)

9  Could / be able to can both be used in negations and questions for either repeated or single actions.  She couldn’t / wasn’t able to pass her driving test.  Were you able to / Could you get to work yesterday?

10  Can is the Present Simple, could is the Past Simple. For other tenses we use be able to.  He hasn’t been able to call them yet but he can call them tomorrow.

11 Possibility (present or future)  May / might / could + present infinitive  Jim may / might / could pass the test this time.  Where’s Ann? – She could be in the shopping mall. Possibility (past)  May / might / could + perfect infinitive  John looks miserable. He may/might/could have lost his job.

12  Could + perfect infinitive is also used for something which was possible but did not actually happen.  Don’t drive that fast! You could have killed that boy. (Luckily, you didn’t kill him.)  To express possibility in questions we don’t use may. We use: Can he? Could he? Is he likely to? Might he?

13 Probability  Ought to / should + present infinitive (something is probable now or in the future)  Laura ought to / should pass the exam. (= She will probably pass it.)  Ought to / should + perfect infinitive (something that we expected to happen but we don’t know if it happened or not)  Has Sue phoned yet? She ought to / should have phoned an hour ago.

14 Logical assumptions  Can’t / couldn’t + present infinitive (= I don’t think; It’s logically improbable)  She can’t be rich. Her house is too small.  Must + present infinitive (= I think; I’m fairly sure; It’s logically probable)  His face is red. He must be angry.  Can’t is the opposite of must.

15  Can’t / couldn’t + perfect infinitive (= It’s impossible that something happened in the past)  She can’t / couldn’t have lied to us. She always tells the truth.  Must + perfect infinitive (= It’s very probable that something happened in the past.)  I didn’t hear the phone. I must have been asleep.

16 Asking for permission  Can (informal) / Could (more polite)  May (formal) / Might (more formal)  Can / Could I interrupt you for a second?  May / Might I speak to the manager, please?

17 Giving or refusing permission  Can (informal)  Can (Could) I use your phone? – Of course you can.  May (formal)  Luggage may be left here.  Mustn’t / can’t (informal – refusing)  I’m afraid you mustn’t / can’t smoke in here.  May not (formal)  You may not smoke in this building.

18  Can / be allowed to (the future or present)  Students are allowed to / can use the gym free of charge.  Could (about the past – for repeated actions)  Was/were allowed to (about the past, both repeated and single actions)  I could always / I was always allowed to stay in the gym after school.  The reporter was allowed to take a photo of Madonna. (single action)  Couldn’t / wasn’t allowed to (in negations)

19  Can you help me, please? (informal)  Will you get me my slippers, please? (familiar)  Could you make me some tea? (polite)  May I have a glass of water? (formal)  Would you post this letter for me? (more polite and formal than ‘Could you’)  Would you mind closing the window? (more formal)

20  I’ll post this letter for you if you like.  Shall I help you with your luggage?  Would you like some more tea?  Shall we go out for a walk?  We can / could go to the cinema, if you like.  Let’s go out for a walk.  How / What about going to the park?  Why don’t we go out for a walk?

21  Should / ought to + present infinitive (it’s the best thing to do)  You should stop smoking.  You ought to treat animals kindly.  Shall I? (asking for advice)  Shall I tell him the truth?  Should / ought to + perfect infinitive (about the past)  You shouldn’t have been rude to your sister yesterday.  You oughtn’t to have started smoking.

22  Must / have to (= It’s necessary)  Must is used only for the present and future when the speakers decides.  I must lose some weight. (It’s my decision.)  Have to is used when the necessity comes from outside the speaker.  I have to lose some weight. The doctor says so.  Had to is used in the past.  I had to go to work early yesterday.

23  Have got to (more informal, used for obligation on a single occasion)  I’ve got to go.  Ought to (duty; it’s the right thing to do)  We ought to respect the environment.  Need (it’s necessary) is followed by a passive full infinitive or an –ing form, and takes –s in the 3 rd person singular)  The door needs to be mended.  The door needs mending.

24  Needn’t + bare present infinitive / don’t have to / don’t need to (it’s not necessary in the present or future)  You needn’t take a jacket. It’s warm.  You don’t have to / don’t need to take a jacket.  Didn’t need to / didn’t have to (it wasn’t necessary in the past and we may not know if the action happened or not)  He didn’t need/have to buy any milk. There was a lot in the fridge. (I don’t know if he bought any.)

25  Needn’t + bare perfect infinitive (We know that something happened in the past although it was not necessary.)  She needn’t have bought any milk. There was a lot in the fridge. (I know she bough some milk but there was no need.)

26  Mustn’t (= it’s forbidden)  You mustn’t smoke in the office.  Can’t (= you are not allowed to)  You can’t wait here.

27 NOW LET´S PRACTICE!! Rewrite each sentence without changing the meaning. a) You didn´t study at all. Bad mistake! You SHOULD HAVE STUDIED. b) Did you manage to find the keys? Were __________________________________ c) It wasn't necessary to get up so early in the end. I didn't ________________________________ d) Perhaps Leannne forgot our date. Leanne might ______________________________ e) It was possible for you to have got lost. You could ______________________________ f) It would have been a good idea not to trust him. You should ___________________________ g) Smoking in class is prohibited. You mustn´t _____________________________ h) Mum went shopping but it wasn´t necessary. Mum needn't __________________________ i) It would be better to tell him. You ought ____________________________ j) I´m sure they aren´t at home. All the lights are off. They can't _____________________________

28 Replace the words in italics with appropriate modal verbs. Add any other necessary words. “ Wonderful, it´s Sunday and (a) not necessary for me to get up at 7 o´clock. (b) I´ll possibly stay in bed a bit longer although I think the children (c) are probably awake now and I´ll (d) be obliged to get their breakfast soon. They refuse to make it for themselves. I’d better get up immediately because (e) perhaps they will wreck the house. However, it is still very early and they (f) are probably not very hungry yet. (g) It would have been a good idea if I had put out the cornflakes and milk yesterday evening. But all this thinking and not acting is really silly! (h) It´s really necessary for me to get up this minute. Now where are my bedroom slippers? That damn dog (i) has probably hidden them again! (j) It would be a good idea for us to train it better, but I suppose we (k) weren´t obliged to buy it in the first place, and after all, it´s only a puppy. Oh, I’d forgotten! (l) It´s just possible that Alan will be back from his business trip today - marvellous! One adult isn´t enough to look after four children, a puppy, and three goldfish! Why (m) did he refuse to take me with him? (n) It was possible for us to get his mother to come and look after the children. Never again! ”

29  KEY to exercise 1 b. were you able to find the keys? c. I didn´t have to get up so early. d. Leanne might have forgotten our date. e. You could have got lost. f. You should not have trusted him. g. You mustn´t smoke in class. h. Mum needn´t have gone shopping. i. You ought to tell him. j. They can´t be at home. The lights are off.  KEY to exercise 2  a. I NEEDN’T  b. I MIGHT STAY  c. MAY BE  d. HAVE TO  e. THEY MIGHT  f. CAN’T BE  g. I SHOULD HAVE  h. I MUST  i. MUST HAVE  j. WE SHOULD  k. DIDN’T HAVE TO  l. ALAN MAY BE  m. COULDN’T HE  n. WE COULD HAVE GOT

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