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Earthquake Vocabulary Notecards

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1 Earthquake Vocabulary Notecards

2 Weathering Process of breaking down the Earth’s material by natural processes of water, wind, ice, and chemicals into smaller pieces or sediments Destructive Process

3 Erosion Weathered or broken down rock and other material are moved by natural processes, such as water or wind, from place to place Destructive Movement

4 Deposition Process where sediments are settled or laid down in a new location Constructive Process

5 Constructive Force Force that builds up features on the Earth’s surface or on an existing landform

6 Destructive Force Forces that destroy features on the Earth’s surface

7 Constructive vs. Destructive Forces Venn Diagram
Canyon Delta Tsunami Flood Sandbar Landslides Glacier Weathering Erosion Deposition Earthquake Volcano Mountains Islands Sand Dune

8 Focus Point of origin underground where the rocks break producing vibrations and creating an earthquake Earth’s Surface DRAW Fault Line

9 Epicenter Point above ground on the surface directly above the focus
Earth’s Surface DRAW Fault Line


11 You Need: Clicker Checking Pen Bad Vibrations Worksheet
Earthquake Vocabulary Notecards

12 Compression Force that squeezes rock or an object until it folds or breaks

13 Tension Force that occurs to stretch an object or rock

14 Shear Force that pushes a mass of rock or an object in opposite directions

15 Fault Line Types Normal Fault – blocks of crust are pulled away and one block falls down Occurs at Divergent Boundary with Tension Force Reverse Fault – blocks of crust are pushed together and one block slides up Occurs at Convergent Boundary with Compression Force Strike-Slip Fault – blocks of crust slide past each other with no up or down motion Occurs at Transform Boundary with Shear Force

16 Normal Fault Pictures **Do NOT Copy**
blocks of crust are pulled away and one block falls down

17 Reverse Fault Pictures **Do NOT Copy**
blocks of crust are pushed together and one block slides up

18 Strike-Slip Fault Pictures **Do NOT Copy**
blocks of crust slide past each other with no up or down motion

19 Types of Seismic Waves P-Wave (Primary) – first wave from the focus
Push-pull wave that can travel through solids & liquids Fastest wave S-Wave (Secondary) – slow wave from the focus Vibrates crust side to side & up or down Travels only through solids Surface Wave – slowest wave from the epicenter Come from P- & S-Waves that reach the surface Produce most damage Stronger near the epicenter

20 Richter Scale Measures strength of seismic waves on a seismograph
Scale of 1-10 10 is the strongest Each number is 10 times stronger than the number before

21 Richter Scale **Do NOT Copy**

22 When You’re Finished BBC Plate Tectonics Test Bite **Headphones**
Fault Motion Simulations Constructive Forces Destructive Forces Earthquake Interactive Forces of Nature **Takes a Few Minutes to Load** Beat the Quake **Headphones** Shake, Rattle, & Slide **Headphones**


24 Volcanoes Vocabulary Notecards

25 Magma Molten rock found beneath the Earth’s surface

26 Lava Molten rock found on the Earth’s surface

27 Tephra Pyroclastic material of any size rock fragments, ash, and/or dust

28 Viscosity Measures the thickness of molten material
High viscosity = thick Low viscosity = more fluid

29 Volcano Activity Levels
Active – has erupted in recent time & can erupt again at any time Look for Seismic Activity Example: Mt. St. Helens Dormant – no eruption in recent time, but has a record of past eruptions Example: Mt. Rainier in Washington Extinct – not known to have erupted in modern history or to ever erupt again Example: Crater Lake

30 Types of Volcanoes Cinder Cone – small base with steep sides
Made of Cinders Explosive eruption Shield – large, wide base with gentle sloping sides Calm lava flows Composite-Strato – tall, large, mountain-like volcano with snow cap Alternating eruptions of lava & tephra

31 Types of Lava AA – hot, thin, fast flowing
Hardens with a rough, jagged edge Pahoehoe – thicker, slow moving lava Hardens with smooth, ropy appearance Pillow – forms when lava erupts & cools suddenly underwater

32 Types of Volcanic Eruptions
Determined by amount of water vapor & gases and chemical composition of magma Explosive eruption – thick magma, high pressure/gas & water content Example: Mt. St. Helens Quiet eruption – fluid magma, low gas pressure & water content Example: Hawaiian Islands Mt. Kilauea

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