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Earth Science Coach Williams Room 310B.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Science Coach Williams Room 310B."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Science Coach Williams Room 310B

2 Chapter 15 Physical Oceanography

3 Section 15.1: The Oceans Objectives:
Identify methods used by scientists to study Earth’s oceans Discuss the origin and composition of the oceans Describe the distribution of oceans and major seas

4 Oceanography The study of Earth’s oceans

5 Modern Oceanography Sonar: SOund NAvigation and Ranging”
Mapping ocean floors Side-scan sonar: angles Satellites: monitor water temp/ waves

6 Origins of Oceans Earth: 4.6 billion years old
Ocean sedimentary rock Igneous rock- lava chilled quickly = water Where did ocean water come from? Meteorites colliding release water 0.05% of meteorites are water Volcanism: water vapor

7 Distribution of Earth’s Water
Oceans: 97% of Earth’s water Freshwater/glaciers: 3% Sea Level: level of the ocean Ice makes sea levels vary Sea floor rising/falling 71% of planet is covered by oceans Major Oceans: Pacific, Atlantic, Indian Other oceans: Arctic & Antarctic Seas: smaller than oceans and usually land- locked

8 Oceans

9 Section 15.2: Seawater Objectives:
Compare/contrast the physical and chemical properties of seawater Explain ocean layering Describe the formation of deep-water masses

10 Chemical Properties of Seawater
96.5% water & 3.5% dissolved salt (NaCl) Salt is metal & group17 on periodic table Salinity: amount of dissolved salt Average: 35ppt (parts per thousand) Lower: polar regions, river/ocean, high precipitation Higher: low precipitation/high evaporation Salt: Volcanism, weathering/rivers Dissolved gasses: O, N, CO2 Salt balance: precipitate, ocean spray, animals

11 Physical Properties of Seawater
Density: more dense than pure water >1 Salinity, temperature Freezing point lowered (-2°C) Darkness: ocean water absorbs light (100m)

12 Ocean Layering Range of surface temp.: -2°C through 30°C (Avg=15°C)
Depth & temp.: deeper = colder Temp. Profile: plots temp. with depth 3 Layers (based on temp./density) Surface layer Thermocline: rapidly decreasing temp. Bottom layer

13 Ocean Layering

14 Water Masses Warm tropic water rises Polar waters sink 3 Ocean Masses:
Antarctic Bottom Water North Atlantic Deep Water Antarctic Intermediate Water

15 Water Masses

16 Section 15.3: Ocean Movements
Objectives: Describe the physical properties of waves Explain how tides form Compare/contrast various ocean currents

17 Waves Wave: movement that carries energy Caused by wind
Water moves up and down; energy moves forward

18 Wave Characteristics Crest: tallest part Trough: lowest part
Wavelength: distance between wave Wave base: how deep water is disturbed ½ of wavelength Speed of wave affected by wavelength Speed = wavelength x frequency Wave height: distance from crest to trough Wind speed Wind duration Fetch: how much open water

19 Wave Characteristics

20 Breaking Waves Breakers: collapsing waves
Friction with bottom slows water down Faster waves catch slower moving water Faster water at top Shapes shoreline

21 Tides Periodic rise/fall of sea level
High Tide: highest level Low Tide: lowest level Tidal range: difference between two levels

22 Causes of Tides Gravitational pull: Earth, Moon, Sun
Gravity depends on mass and distance Sun: larger mass (Solar Tides) Moon: closer (Lunar Tides) Spring tides: Sun/Moon/Earth aligned Tides are higher/lower than normal

23 Causes of Tides

24 Ocean Currents Density currents: Surface currents:
Caused by density differences (salinity/temp.) Slow moving Surface currents: Wind driven currents Top 100m Faster Predictable patterns Gyres: circular current systems

25 Ocean Currents

26 Gyres

27 Upwelling Movement of water up and down Brings nutrients from deep

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