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1 Abstract Class and Packages from Chapter 9 Lecture.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Abstract Class and Packages from Chapter 9 Lecture."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Abstract Class and Packages from Chapter 9 Lecture

2 2 Review Abstract classes Using final with inheritance Packages Access protection Importing packages

3 3 Abstract Classes Sometimes, we want to define a superclass that declares the structure of a abstraction with a complete implementation of every method. That is, we want to create a superclass that only defines a generalised form that will be shared by all of its subclasses.

4 4 More about Abstract Classes The main purpose of an abstract class is to define a common interface for it's subclasses to which some or all implementation is deferred. Abstract classes may be used in designing a family of related subclasses. The general form is: abstract type name (parameter-list)

5 5 Example – page 217

6 6 Explanation In object-oriented programming, we want to model an abstract concept without being able to create an instance of it. Here, class A defines an abstract class callme() {This class also supports a concrete method callme1(). } callme() is implemented in Class B.

7 7 Final Final with inheritance has three uses. First, it can be used to create the equivalent of a named constant Secondly, to apply final to prevent overriding Thirdly, to use final to prevent inheritance

8 8 Using final to prevent overriding Overriding is one of java ’ s most powerful features, there will be times when we will want to prevent it from occurring. To disallow a method from being overridden, we specify final as a modifier at the start of its declaration.

9 9 Example – with a compilation error Because show() is declared as final, it cannot be overridden.

10 10 Using final to prevent inheritance Sometimes, we want to prevent a class from being inherited. To do this, we can precede the class declaration with final. Declaring a class as final implies that all of its methods as final.

11 11 Example – with a compilation error

12 12 Package Packages are one of the basic components of a Java Program. In general, a Java source can contain any of the following: A single package statement Any number of import statements A single public class declaration Any number of classes private to the package

13 13 Create a package To create a package is easy. The user simply includes a package command as the first statement in a Java source file. The package statement defines a name space in which classes are package, which has no name. The format is: package pkg; Name of the package (directory), not class

14 14 Package Hierarchy The package hierarch is: package java.awt.image; It access the package in java/awt/image

15 15 Manual Method Example (1) Make a directory called YourPackage under your current directory mkdir YourPackage Use a notepad to create a file as follows and put it under the directory of YourPackage

16 16 Example (2) Compile it

17 17 Example (3)

18 18 More Example (1) Create a file on left-hand side. Put it into a directory called Mypack Compile it

19 19 More Example (2)

20 Creating Packages Using Eclipse 20

21 Snap for Creating Package 21

22 Viewing the newly created Package 22

23 23 Access Protection In Java, there are at least three control mechanism. private, public and protected Package adds another dimension to access control. Java provides many levels of protection over the visibility of variables and methods within classes, subclasses and packages

24 24 Importing Packages Java includes the import statement to bring certain classes or entire packages into visibility. Once imported, a class can be referred to directly, using only its name. The format is: import pkg1[.pkg2](classname)

25 25 Examples of Importing Packages import java.util.Date (import Date Package undre java, utility) import* (import IO packages under java)

26 26 Example (1)

27 27 Example (2) Create a file using import YourPackage.* (it will import any classes under this directory)

28 28 Your Class under YourPackage

29 29 More Example

30 30 More Example - Explanation Create a add class which has add and sub methods Create a lecture108 and import the add class Pass the value from agrs[0] and pass to add class to perform add and sub.

31 31 Summary Abstract classes – used as a family Using final with inheritance – the last method Packages – create class path Access protection – private, public protect (Packages) Importing packages – import other classes

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