Presentation on theme: "Schoenberg: Peripetie from ‘Five Orchestral Pieces’ Opus 16 (1909)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Schoenberg: Peripetie from ‘Five Orchestral Pieces’ Opus 16 (1909) Analysis section by section
2 Score reading taskFind 4 examples of hexachords on your scores (you should have notes on this).Annotate them to tell me whether they use verticalisatoin or melodic treatmentYou only have 3 minutes to do this
3 Expressionism so farHow did WW1 impact the way artists, composers, poets etc created their work?Composers started to use lots of chromatics in their pieces. What are chromatics?What does atonal mean?What are the dynamics like in an expressionist piece of music?How do expressionist composers explore pitch and timbre?What is a hexachord? What is the compliment?
4 ‘Peripetie’ was written for a large orchestra to produce contrasts with texture, dynamics & timbre. It is written for quadruple woodwind (4 per section)3 flutes & piccolo3 clarinets & bass clarinet3 bassoons & contrabassoon3 oboes & cor anglaisA large brass section, with and without mutes.A large percussion section – cymbals, timpani, xylophone& of course stringsFlute Piccoloclarinet Bass clarinetbassooncontrabassoonOboe Coranglais
5 Important features The parts are very challenging to play A lot of wide leaps, use of the lowest to the highest register of all the instruments.There is no conventional structure – although it is like a ‘free’ Rondo with contrasting textures & tempo.Use of melodic fragments (very short melodic ideas)Use of complicated fragmented rhythmsAtonalUse of hexachords and complimentsThe melody is passed around different instruments.It is made up of 5 sectionsPeripetie is Greek for Sudden Changes
6 Section A: Bars 1-18 Begins with a bang! Clarinets and flutes begin with 2 hexachords - Bar 1 Clarinets - Bar 3 FlutesLeads to a fortissimo (ff) horn motif marked principal lineVariations of the hexachords appear throughout the piece as they are a basis for most of the melodic and harmonic contentMost of the ideas to be used in this piece are stated one after the other
7 Section A: Bars 1-18 Tempo/Rhythm Tempo marking: sehr rasch- Very quickOpening contains mostly short triplet and sextuplet burstsTempo feels a little like its slowing after the burst - etwas ruhiger: slightly calmer - Quiet horn passage
8 Section A: 1-18 Instrumentation/Texture The full orchestra get a short appearanceBrass dominate the texture till bar 8 when the woodwind take over with low bassoon/ bass clarinet and silky clarinet lineInstrumental combinations drop in and out in homophonic burstsTexture thins towards the end of the section leaving a solo clarinet
9 Section A: Bars 1-18 Pitch/Melody Atonal (no sense of key) Built on hexachordsOpening bars show the full pitch range of the instrumentsBar 10: Clarinet melody is expressive and gentle, but still has harsh interval leaps used to create tension (Minor 9th/ Major 7th)
10 Section A: Bars 1-18 Dynamics: Starts loudly, becoming louder with sudden bursts from instrumental groupsBar 5 reaches fff before dying away to pTrumpets and trombones use a muteMutes usually mellow the tone, but Schoenberg uses it for sound qualityHe uses extremes of dynamics that the mute wasn’t designed to reach!
11 Section B: 18-34Second section is marked by the cello taking the principal voiceThe high, intense cello line gives way to a frantic sectionTempo/rhythmTempo returns to original markingShort durations give the impression that the tempo has increased more than it has
12 Section B: 18-34 Instrumentation/texture Full orchestra used, but not all at once, except for climatic points (e.g )Wind and percussion: very busy and loud dynamics Violins and Cellos: Soft line, mostly inaudible but add to the effect and textureShows Schoenberg's attention to detailPolyphonic and complex texture throughout
13 Section B: 18-34 Pitch/Melody Principal voice snakes through much of the orchestraBars 24-28: Bounces rapidly from one brass instrument to another (Klangfarbernmelodie)Klangfarbernmelodie: Tone, colour melody. Describes how timbre contributes to the melody as well as pitch and rhythmBar 28 and 29: Secondary voice makes its only appearance in the piece
14 Section B: 18-34 Dynamics Begins quite quietly Immediate crescendo Dynamics are varied from instrument to instrumentPrincipal and secondary voices always f-fffOther parts ranging from quiet to very loudDynamics change dramatically in a restless way
15 Section A1: 35-43This section is marked by string section taking principal voiceHorn flourish followsReturn to the pp horn hexachord of bar 8Menacing mood, gives the impression more fireworks are to come!
16 Section C: 44-58Section is marked by the bassoon taking the principal voice, passing it onto solo celloTempo/Rhythm: Alternates between ruhiger (calmer) and heftig (passionate)Instrumentation/texture: Sparse, Schoenberg concentrates on overlapping solo instrumentsBar 53: Full orchestraDynamics: range from pp (bars 44/45) to fff (bars 53-55)
17 Section A2: 59-66Section is introduced by speeding up to the original tempo and a triplet figure in clarinets and second violinTempo/Rhythm:Rhythmic motifs from Section A return Trumpets bars 61-63= bar 5/6 repeated in quick succession Clarinets bars 59-61= bar 1 Flutes bars 62-63= bar 3
18 Section A2: 59-66 Instrumentation/Texture: Starting with clarinets and strings, instruments are introduced one by one in quick succession (layering)Bar 64: Full orchestra comes together for final climatic chord
19 Section A2: 59-66 Pitch/Melody Material from the opening is used and developedNo voice is marked as more important than any otherBar 64: Climatic hexachord (C D Eb F# G G#)Bar 64: Double basses play an unrelated tremolo chord, very high in their register, which sustains once the climatic chord dies awayDynamics:Crescendos quickly from pp at bar 59 to fff in bar 64Immediately dies away to nothing with the tremolo double basses
20 Listening and appraising questions Describe the dynamics of the first section of the pieceName the type of ensemble performing PeripetieDescribe the tonality of the piecePeripetie was written in the 20th century. List 6 musical features you can hear in the piece that demonstrate thisWhat is the name given to the group of notes Schoenberg used as a basic for his melodic and harmonic material?How might Schoenberg have used this group of notes when he composed the piece?
21 Listening and appraising questions 7. The horns play a sustained chord in bar 8. In which section later on can the horns be heard playing the same chord? What is the dynamic marking for this chord? 8. What is the term given to Schoenberg's technique of moving the melodic parts rapidly through the instruments? 9. What playing technique can be heard in the strings in the last 2 bars of the piece?
23 Exam QuestionDescribe the use of rhythm in this expressionist piece (3 marks).Basic answers: - Rhythms are broken up and do not flow - Rhythms are complicated - Rhythms are varied and keep on changingExcellent answers: - Rhythms are fragmented and erratic with no regular pulse - Complex patterns features including sextuplets, duplets, constant syncopation etc - There is little repetition of rhythmic ideas in the music, creating a sense of unrest, chaos and lack of order