9 A. (cont) Plains Areas North European Plain West Siberian Plain Chernozem – rich black soilAbout 75% of Russia’s population lives hereWest Siberian Plain
10 Coasts, Seas, and Lakes Longest coastline in the world Caspian Sea – largest inland sea in the world (salt water)Lake Baikal – deepest freshwater lake in the worldContains about 20% of the earth’s total supply of freshwaterLake Baikal
11 B. Rivers The Volga River (“Mother Volga”) Vital to Russia (transportation, hydroelectric power)Frozen ½ of the yearProvides 33% of Russia’s usable waterVery polluted
12 The Volga RiverThe river is so polluted that the sturgeon catch has been decreased by 60%.
13 Siberian Rivers Ob, Irtysh, Yenisey, & Lena Amur Lena RiverSiberian RiversOb, Irtysh, Yenisey, & LenaFlow north to the Arctic OceanAmurFlows eastward
14 C. Natural Resources Minerals & Energy Russia has a huge reserve of mineral resourcesPetroleumCoalNatural GasNickelAluminum, gemstonesHydroelectric Power – leader in the world
15 -Russia’s Fishing Industry -Soil and Forest Land10% land – agriculture – permafrostBlack Earth Belt1/5 of remaining world forests in Russia – Siberia2nd to the Amazon for oxygen returned to atmosphere-Russia’s Fishing IndustryFish important to Russian diet & economy
18 Former Soviet Region Compared in Latitude & Area with the United States
19 A. Russia’s Climates & Vegetation Most of Russia is characterized by a harsh climate of long, cold winters and short, relatively cool summers.Coldest winter temps. = E. Siberia
20 B. High Latitudes Climates Tundra – vast treeless plainAlmost all of the places with this climate lie north of the Arctic CircleAbout 10% of RussiaSubarcticDominate climate regionSome of the world’s coldest temperatures occur thereFor days a year, snow covers the groundTaiga – forest beltLiving in a Cold ClimateWhat adjustments would you have to make?
21 Siberia --> Permafrost Average temperatures of January vary from 0 to -50°, and in July from 1 to 25°C150,000,000 population.A former “gulag” Soviet prison camp.
22 C. Mid-Latitude Climates Humid ContinentalMost of Russia’s N. European PlainWar & WinterCold winters have played a key role in wars (pg )Napoleon's Retreat from MoscowGerman POWs at Stalingrad