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Chapter 14 UV Spectroscopy

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 UV Spectroscopy"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 UV Spectroscopy

2 Conjugated and Nonconjugated Dienes
Compounds can have more than one double or triple bond If they are separated by only one single bond they are conjugated and their orbitals interact The conjugated diene 1,3-butadiene has properties that are very different from those of the nonconjugated diene, 1,5-pentadiene

3 14.8 Structure Determination in Conjugated Systems: UV Spectroscopy
Conjugated compounds can absorb light in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum The electrons in the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) undergo a transition to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) The region from 2 x 10-7m to 4 x 10-7m (200 to 400 nm) is most useful in organic chemistry A plot of absorbance (log of the ratio of the intensity of light in over light transmitted) against wavelength in this region is an ultraviolet spectrum – see Figure 14-12

4 14.9 Ultraviolet Spectrum of 1,3-Butadiene
Example: 1,4-butadiene has four  molecular orbitals with the lowest two occupied Electronic transition is from HOMO to LUMO at 217 nm (peak is broad because of combination with stretching, bending)


6 14.10 Interpreting UV Spectra: Effect of Conjugation
max: wavelength where UV absorbance for a compound is greatest Energy difference between HOMO and LUMO decreases as the extent of conjugation increases max increases as conjugation increases (lower energy) 1,3-butadiene: 217 nm, 1,3,5-hexatriene: 258 nm Substituents on  system increase max See Table 14-2 for examples


8 14.11 Conjugation, Color and the Chemistry of Vision
Visible region is about 400 to 800 nm Extended systems of conjugation absorb in visible region b-Carotene, 11 double bonds in conjugation, max = 455 nm Visual pigments are responsible for absorbing light in eye and triggering nerves to send signal to brain

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