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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14: POLYMER STRUCTURES"— Presentation transcript:

ISSUES TO ADDRESS... • What are the basic microstructural features? • How are polymer properties effected by molecular weight? • How do polymeric crystals accommodate the polymer chain?

2 Chapter 14 – Polymers What is a polymer? Poly mer many repeat unit C H
Polyethylene (PE) Cl C H Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) H Polypropylene (PP) C CH3 Adapted from Fig. 14.2, Callister 7e.

3 Ancient Polymer History
Originally natural polymers were used Wood – Rubber Cotton – Wool Leather – Silk Oldest known uses Rubber balls used by Incas Noah used pitch (a natural polymer) for the ark

4 Polymer Composition Most polymers are hydrocarbons
– i.e. made up of H and C Saturated hydrocarbons Each carbon bonded to four other atoms CnH2n+2


6 Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Double & triple bonds relatively reactive – can form new bonds Double bond – ethylene or ethene - CnH2n 4-bonds, but only 3 atoms bound to C’s Triple bond – acetylene or ethyne - CnH2n-2

7 Isomerism Isomerism two compounds with same chemical formula can have quite different structures Ex: C8H18 n-octane 2-methyl-4-ethyl pentane (isooctane)

8 Chemistry of Polymers Free radical polymerization
Initiator: example - benzoyl peroxide

9 Chemistry of Polymers Note: polyethylene is just a long HC
Adapted from Fig. 14.1, Callister 7e. Polymer- can have various lengths depending on number of repeat units Note: polyethylene is just a long HC - paraffin is short polyethylene

10 Bulk or Commodity Polymers
Relatively few polymers responsible for virtually all polymers sold – these are the bulk or commodity polymers



13 MOLECULAR WEIGHT • Molecular weight, Mi: Mass of a mole of chains.
Lower M higher M Simple for small molecules All the same size Number of grams/mole Polymers – distribution of chain sizes Mw is more sensitive to higher molecular weights Adapted from Fig. 14.4, Callister 7e.

14 Molecular Weight Calculation
Example: average mass of a class

15 Degree of Polymerization, n
n = number of repeat units per chain ni = 6 Chain fraction mol. wt of repeat unit i

16 End to End Distance, r Adapted from Fig. 14.6, Callister 7e.

17 Molecular Structures • Covalent chain configurations and strength:
B ranched Cross-Linked Network Linear secondary bonding Direction of increasing strength Adapted from Fig. 14.7, Callister 7e.

18 Polymers – Molecular Shape
Conformation – Molecular orientation can be changed by rotation around the bonds note: no bond breaking needed Adapted from Fig. 14.5, Callister 7e.

19 Polymers – Molecular Shape
Configurations – to change must break bonds Stereoisomerism mirror plane

20 Tacticity Tacticity – stereoregularity of chain
isotactic – all R groups on same side of chain syndiotactic – R groups alternate sides atactic – R groups random

21 cis/trans Isomerism cis trans cis-isoprene (natural rubber)
bulky groups on same side of chain trans trans-isoprene (gutta percha) bulky groups on opposite sides of chain

22 Copolymers two or more monomers polymerized together
Adapted from Fig. 14.9, Callister 7e. two or more monomers polymerized together random – A and B randomly vary in chain alternating – A and B alternate in polymer chain block – large blocks of A alternate with large blocks of B graft – chains of B grafted on to A backbone A – B – random alternating block graft

23 Polymer Crystallinity
Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e. Ex: polyethylene unit cell Crystals must contain the polymer chains in some way Chain folded structure Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e. 10 nm

24 Polymer Crystallinity
Polymers rarely 100% crystalline Too difficult to get all those chains aligned crystalline region • % Crystallinity: % of material that is crystalline. -- TS and E often increase with % crystallinity. -- Annealing causes crystalline regions to grow. % crystallinity increases. amorphous region Adapted from Fig , Callister 6e. (Fig is from H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1965.)

25 Polymer Crystal Forms Single crystals – only if slow careful growth
Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e.

26 Polymer Crystal Forms Spherulites – fast growth – forms lamellar (layered) structures Spherulite surface Nucleation site Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e.

27 Spherulites – crossed polarizers
Maltese cross Adapted from Fig , Callister 7e.

28 ANNOUNCEMENTS Reading: Core Problems: Self-help Problems:


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