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Types of Articulations/Joints

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1 Types of Articulations/Joints
Fibrous– bones joined by dense regular connective tissue; no or limited movement (periodontal, sutures, interosseus) Cartilaginous– bones joined by cartilage; some movement (costochondral, intervertebral, symphyses) Synovial – fluid filled joint cavity separates articulatory surfaces of bones; extensive movement (temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital, atlantoaxial, vertebral articular process joints, sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow, radiocarpal, coxal, knee, talocrural)

2 Synovial Joints (Articular) Capsule – 2 layered con. tissue
Fibrous Layer – outer dense reg. con. tiss. Synovial Membrane (synovium) – inner thin loose connective tissue Synovial Fluid – plasma & secretions Articular Cartilage – hyaline cartilage (lacks a perichondrium)

3 Synovial Joints Articular Discs – discs of fibrocartilage between the articular cartilages [Menisci (sing. = meniscus) – C-shaped articular discs] Extrinsic Ligaments – (outside) art. capsule Intrinsic Extracapsular Ligaments – join bones; thickenings of articular capsule Intrinsic Intracapsular Ligaments – join bones within the art. capsule

4 Synovial Joints Bursae (sing. = bursa) – capsule containing synovial fluid, near but not part of joint; reduce friction Tendon Sheath – an elongate bursa that envelopes tendons or ligaments; reduce friction. Fat Pads – fill spaces around joints, can provide some limited protection.

5 Glenohumeral Joint

6 Elbow Joint

7 Coxal (Hip) Joint

8 Knee Joint

9 Temporomandibular & Sternoclavicular Joints

10 Muscular System

11 Muscle Classification
Cardiac Muscles = involuntary; myogenic; short, branched, uninucleate cells with striations. Smooth Muscles = involuntary; myogenic; short, unbranched, uninucleate cells withOUT striations. Skeletal Muscles = voluntary; neurogenic; long, unbranched multinucleate cells with striations.

12 Muscle Classifications
Somatic Muscles = Superficial to coelom (develop from myotome and/or somatic lateral plate). Visceral Muscles = Deep to coelom (develop from splanchnic lateral plate). Myogenic Muscles = contraction initiated in the muscle itself. Neurogenic Muscles = contraction initiated by a nerve.

13 Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types
Fast Glycolytic Fibers (“White”) = rapid contraction; quick to fatigue; large diameter; low vascularization; little myoglobin; few mitochondria. Slow Oxidative Fibers (“Red”) = slow contraction; slow to fatigue; narrow diameter; much vascularization; high myoglobin; many mitochondria. Intermediate Fibers.

14 Skeletal Muscle Terms Muscle = muscle cells and the non-contractile supporting cells that together perform a single function. Fascia = Connective tissue that surround muscle organs. (epimysium) Tendon = Dense connective tissue that attaches a muscle organ to a bone. (connect to periosteum) Aponeurosis = flat, sheet-like tendon

15 Skeletal Muscle Terms Ligaments
Belly (gaster) = Fleshy part of muscle. Origin = relatively fixed site of muscle attachment. Insertion = relatively mobile site of muscle attachment. Attachment = origin or insertion Ligaments Ligament = Dense connective tissue that attaches a bone to a bone.

16 Biceps Muscle insertion origin tendon belly

17 Biceps & Triceps Muscles

18 Muscle Actions Flex = decrease angle btw. two parts.
Extend = increase angle btw. two parts. Adduct = move a part toward the central axis or “main part.” Abduct = move a part away from the central axis or “main part.”

19 Muscle Actions Depress = move a part “down.”
Levate = move a part “up.” Constrict = close or restrict openings. Dilate = open or enlarge openings.

20 Muscle Names Combination of origin and insertion names. (origin-insertion) coracomandibularis, puboischiofemoris Combinations of attachments, homologies, position, or actions. adductor mandibulae, superficial constrictor Descriptors of size, shape, or perceived similarity. trapezius (table), pectoralis major (big pectoral)

21 Muscle Development Muscles form from mesoderm; obvious exception = the iris (ectodermal) splanchnic lateral plate mesoderm  visceral smooth & cardiac muscles somatic lateral plate mesoderm  some skeletal muscles myotomal mesoderm (somitomeres and somites)  most skeletal muscles prechordal mesoderm (in front of notochord)  3 extrinsic eye muscles

22 Vertebrate Neurula (section)
notochord coelom somite inter- mediate meso- derm lateral plate mesoderm gut

23 Vertebrate Embryo (section)
neural crest cells coelom dermatome sclerotome myotome gut splanchnic mesoderm somatic

24 Vertebrate Embryo (section)
coelom neural crest cells dermatome sclerotome myotome gut

25 Vertebrate Embryo (section)
coelom neural crest cells dermatome vertebra myotome gut

26 Gnathostome Embryo (section)
myotome coelom vertebra horizontal septum developing skin gut dermis epidermis neural crest

27 Muscle Development Somitomeres = head mesoderm segments
Somites = postcranial mesoderm segments Horizontal septum = divides myotome of somite into dorsal (epaxial) & ventral (hypaxial) portions (in Gnathostomes). Spinal nerves have epaxial and hypaxial innervating branches. Prechordal mesoderm = median tissue under brain in front of notochord (not segmented)

28 Axial Musculature

29 Head/Neck Muscle Development
Branchiomeric musculature = muscles of the pharyngeal & mandibular arches; derived from somitomeres with some lateral plate mesoderm Hypobranchial musculature = muscles extending under the pharynyx; derived from ventral myotome of anterior somites migrating anteriorly

30 Head/Neck Muscle Development

31 Generalized Vertebrate

32 Generalized Vertebrate
extrinsic eye muscles arch 1 musc. arch 2 arch 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 somitomeres somites mandibular arch hyoid 1st branchial

33 Extrinsic Eye Muscles Extrinsic Eye Muscles (6)
sm 1&2 sm 5 sm 3 move the eye within the orbit, three muscles formed from somitomeres (sm) 1, 2, 3, & 5. three formed from prechordal mesoderm.

34 Human Musculature

35 Superficial Facial Musculature
of epicranius temporalis occipitalis of epicranius levator labii superioris mentalis


37 Neck (Under Chin) Musculature

38 Neck Musculature

39 Mouth Opening & Closing
Opening – Sternohyoid, Sternothyroid, Thyrohyoid, & Omohyoid contract (pull hyoid inferiorly); Digastric & Mylohyoid contract. Closing – Temporalis, Masseter, & Pterygoideus contract (origin = palatine, pterygoid process of sphenoid, & greater wing of sphenoid; insertion = medial coronoid process of mandible) Swallowing – Styloglossus contracts (pulls tongue back); Mylohyoid contracts (raises floor of mouth); Anterior Digastric and Stylohyoid contract (pulls hyoid superiorly)

40 Human Neck Muscles

41 Thoracic Musculature

42 Thoracic (Back) Musculature

43 Thoracic Musculature pectoralis major serratus anterior

44 Thoracic (Back) Musculature
trapezius latissimus dorsi

45 Abdominal Musculature
rectus abdominis external obliques

46 Scapular Movement Musculature
Trapezius & levator scapulae – move scapulas superiorly and/or medially or extend head Rhomboideus (Minor & Major) – move scapulas medially Serratus Anterior – move scapulas laterally and anteriorly/ventrally (pectoralis minor too)

47 Abdominal Musculature
obliques – flex abdomen rectus abdominis – flex abdomen

48 Deep Back Musculature Erector spinae – extends vertebral column

49 Intervertebral Musculature
interspinales intertransversarius rotatores

50 Pelvic Floor Musculature
* penis or clitoris labia majora or scrotum anus median connect. tissue ischiocavernosus bulbospongiosus deep transverse perineus superficial transverse perineus levator ani external anal sphincter

51 Pelvic Floor Musculature (Male)
bulbospongiosus ischiocavernosus deep transverse perineus superficial transverse perineus levator ani external anal sphincter

52 Pelvic Floor Musculature (Female)
ischiocavernosus external urethral sphincter bulbospongiosus deep transverse perineus superficialtransverse perineus levator ani external anal sphincter


54 Comparative Musculature

55 Head/Neck Muscle Development

56 Shark-like Vertebrate

57 Shark-like Vertebrate
somitomeres 1-7 somites 1-4 mandibular arch hyoid 1st branchial

58 Branchiomeric – Gill Arch
constrictors adductor dorsal branchial levators ventral branchials

59 Mandibular & Hyoid levator palatoquadrati, levator hyomandibulae,
adductor mandibulae intermandibularis, ventral constrictor levator palatoquadrati, dorsal constrictor levator hyomandibulae, interhyoideus,

60 Mandibular Arch Muscles
Innervated by trigeminal nerve ( V ). Adductor D. Constrictor Ventral adductor mandibulae masseter, temporalis, pterygoideus levator palatoquadrati pterygoidei ABSENT inter- mandibularis mylohyoid, anterior digastric shark amphibian or reptile mammal

61 Adductor Mandibulae shark “turtle” mammal t m p adductor mandibulae
t = temporalis m = masseter p = pterygoideus

62 Mandibular Arch Muscles

63 Mandibular Arch Muscles

64 Hyoid Arch Muscles Innervated by facial nerve ( VII ). V. Constrictor
D. Constrictor Ventral ventral hyoid constrictor sphincter coli platysma, facial muscles levator hyomandibuli stapedius ABSENT inter- hyoideus stylohyoid, posterior digastric shark amphibian or reptile mammal

65 Hyoid Arch Muscles

66 Branchiomeric Muscles

67 Supracoracoideus Lissamphibia & non-Avian Repilia
origin – coracoid; insert - humerus Adducts ventrally, like pectoralis Mammalia (Supraspinatus & Infraspinatus) origin – scapular blade; insert - humerus Abducts (supraspinatus) limb superiorly or adducts (infraspinatus) linbinferiorly Aves origin – sternum; insert - humerus Abducts limb (elevates) contra pectoralis

68 Amphibian Pectoral Muscles
VENTRAL VIEW supracoracoideus pectoralis

69 Lizard Pectoral Muscles
SCHEMATIC ANTERIOR VIEW scapula scapula humerus coracoid coracoid pectoralis supra- coracoideus sternum

70 Bird Pectoral Muscles scapula coracoid sternum

71 Mammal Pectoral Muscles
SCHEMATIC ANTERIOR VIEW supra- spinatus pectoralis sternum humerus

72 Human Reference

73 Musculature Ref. - Abbreviations
or. = Origin ins. = insert Sm. # = Originates from somite # Smtm. # = Originates from somitomere # - Roman Numeral (e.g., -III or -IV) = Innervated by cranial nerve # (cranial nerves are numbered in roman numerals) - Nerve Name (e.g., -sciatic nerve or –phrenic nerve) = Innervated by named nerve

74 Head Musculature - Reference
Masseter – or. = zygomatic arch; ins. = lateral surface of posterior mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - V Temporalis – or. = frontal, parietal, & temporal; ins. = coronoid process of mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - V Pterygoideus – or. = maxilla, palatines, & pterygoid processes; ins. = medial mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - V Buccinator – or. = body of mandible and maxilla; ins. = fascia of orbicularis oris; compresses cheeks, Smtm. 6 - VII

75 Head Musculature - Reference
Mylohyoid – or. = medial mandible; ins. = median conn. tissue; elevates floor of mouth, depresses mandible, or elevates hyoid, Smtm. 4 - V Digastric – or. = mastoid process of temporal; central tendon loops to hyoid; ins. = medial chin; elevates hyoid or depresses mandible Anterior digastric - Smtm. 4 - V Posterior digastric - Smtm. 6 – VII Stylohyoid – or. = stylod process; ins. = hyoid; elevates hyoid, Smtm. 6 - VII

76 Head Musculature - Reference
Frontalis of epicranius – or. = frontal; ins. = epicranial aponeurosis; wrinkles forehead, raises eyebrows, Smtm. 6 - VII Occipitalis of epicranius – or. = occipital; ins. = epicranial aponeurosis; pulls scalp back, Smtm. 6 - VII Orbicularis oculi – sphincter - , encircles eye; closes eye, constricts eye, Smtm. 6 - VII Orbicularis oris – sphincter - , encircles mouth; puckers lips, constricts mouth, Smtm. 6 - VII

77 Head Musculature - Reference
Nasalis – or. = maxilla; ins. = midline of nose; flattens or flares nose, Smtm. 6 - VII Zygomaticus minor & major – or. = zygomatic arch; ins. = skin at corner of mouth; “smile”, Smtm. 6 - VII Risorius – or. = masseter fascia; ins. = skin at corner of mouth; “smile”, Smtm. 6 - VII Depressor anguli oris – or. = lateral mandible; ins. = skin at corner of mouth; “frown”, Smtm. 6 - VII

78 Head Musculature - Reference
Levator labii superioris – or. = zygomatic arch; ins. = skin at top of mouth; “sneer” or “Elvis lip”, Smtm. 6 - VII Depressor labii inferioris – or. = mandible lateral to midline; ins. = skin at bottom of mouth; “pout lip”, Smtm. 6 - VII Mentalis – or. = median mandible; ins. = skin under mouth; “pout lip”, Smtm. 6 - VII Platysma – or. = deltoid & pectorialis fascia + acromion; ins. = skin of cheek & mandible; tenses neck skin, Smtm. 6 - VII

79 Head/Neck Musc. - Reference
Stylopharyngeus – or. = styloid process; ins. = thyroid cart.; elevates larynx, Smtm.7-IX Palatoglossus – or. = soft palate; ins. = side of tongue; elevates tongue, Sm. 1 - X Sternocleidomastoid – or. = manubrium and clavicle; ins. = mastoid process; neck flexion, Sm IX Trapezius – or. = occipital and spinous processes or thoracic vertebrae; ins. = lateral clavicle and scapular spine; move scapula, Sm IX Sm IX

80 Head/Neck Musc. - Reference
Styloglossus– or.= styloid process; ins.= lat. & inferior tongue; retracts tongue, Sm.1-3 -XII Hyoglossus – or. = hyoid; ins. = lateral tongue; retracts tongue, Sm. 1-3 – XII Genioglossus – or. = medial mandible; ins. = inferior tongue; protracts tongue, Sm. 1-3 – XII Thyrohyoid – or. = thyroid cart.; ins. = hyoid; pulls hyoid and thyroid cart. together Cricothyroid – origin = cricoid cart.; insertion = thyroid cart.; pulls cricoid cart. and thyroid cart. together

81 Head Musculature - Reference
Sternohyoid – or. = manubrium; ins. = hyoid; depresses hyoid Sternothyroid – or. = manubrium; ins. = thyroid; depresses thyroid cartilage Omohyoid – or. = superior edge of scapula; ins. = hyoid; depresses hyoid Scalene muscles – or. = transverse processes of cervical vert. II-VII; ins. = 1st and 2nd ribs; elevates ribs 1 and 2

82 Neck Musculature - Reference
Splenius and capitis muscles – or. = Spinous or transverse processes of C1-T4 (or the median overlying dense connective tissue, the ligamentum nuchae); ins. = mastoid process of temporal occipital bone or transverse processes of the atlas; extend and rotate head (antagonistic to sternocleidomastoid) Levator scapulae – or. = transverse processes of C1-C4; ins. = superior/medial margin of scapula; elevates scapula

83 Thoracic Musculature – Ref. (epaxial musculature)
Erector spinae – or. = ilium, posterior sacrum, & lumbar spinous processes; ins. = ribs, cervical transverse processes, mastoid processes; extends vertebral column Transversospinalis – or. = posterior (dorsal) transverse processes of C1-S1; ins. = spinous processes; extends, rotates or laterally flexes vertebral column

84 Thoracic Musculature – Ref.
Pectoralis major – or. = inferior medial clavicle, sternum, sternal portion of ribs 2-6; ins. = humerus (intertubercular); pulls arm anteriorly (ventrally) Pectoralis minor – or. = ribs 3-5; ins. = coracoid process of scapula; pulls scapula anteriorly (ventrally) Serratus anterior – or. = lat. surfaces of ribs 1-8; ins. = medial inferior margin of blade of scapula; pulls scapula anterior and inferiorly Intercostals (external & internal) – attachments = adjacent ribs; elevate or depress ribs

85 Thoracic Musculature – Ref.
Trapezius – or. = occipital bone, median connective tissue above C1-C6, and spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T12; ins. = lateral clavicle, acromion, and scapular spine; elevate, depress, and/or move scapula medially Rhomboid (minor & major) – or. = spinous processes of C7-T5; ins. = medial margin of blade of scapula; moves scapula medially Latissimus dorsi – or. = spinous processes of vertebrae T7-T12, ribs 8-12, ilium; ins. = intertubercular groove of humerus; extends arm

86 Thoracic Musculature – Ref.
Supraspinatus – or. = dorsal superior scapular blade; ins. = greater tubercle (humerus); abducts & rotates arm Infraspinatus – or. = dorsal middle scapular blade; ins. = greater tubercle (humerus); adducts & rotates arm Teres minor – or. = dorsal middle scapular blade; ins. = greater tubercle (humerus); adducts & rotates arm Teres major – or. = dorsal inferior scapular blade; ins. = lesser tubercle (humerus); extends, adducts & rotates arm

87 Thoracic Musculature – Ref.
Subscapularis – or. = ventral/anterior scapular blade; ins. = lesser tubercle (humerus); rotates arm Coracobrachialis – or. = coracoid process of scapula; ins. = medial humerus shaft; flexes & adducts arm Deltoid – or. = lateral clavicle & acromion process of scapula; ins. = lateral humerus; abducts and extends arm

88 Brachial Musculature – Ref.
Biceps brachii – or. = superior glenoid fossa rim & coracoid process; ins. = radial tuberosity; flexes arm & forearm Triceps brachii – or. = inferior glenoid fossa rim & posterior humerus; ins. = olecranon process; extends arm & forearm Brachialis – or. = anterior shaft of humerus; ins. = coranoid process of ulna; flexes forearm Brachioradialis – or. = lateral humerus; ins. = styloid proc. of radius; flexes forearm

89 Abdominal Musculature- Ref.
Rectus abdominis – or. = pubis; ins. = xiphisternum and anterior (ventral) ribs 5-7; flexes vertebral column Obliques (External & Internal) – or. = inferior ribs 5-12, ilium and lumbar fascia; ins. = linea alba or pelvis; flexes vertebral column Transversus abdominis – or. = ilium, inferior ribs 5-12; ins. = linea alba and pubis; extends, flexes vertebral column

90 Pelvic Musculature- Ref.
Tensor facia latae – or. = lateral iliac crest; ins. = tibia via ileotibeal band; abducts thigh Gluteus maximus – or. = posterior iliac crest, sacrum, & coccyx; ins. = femur; extends thigh Gluteus medius & minimus – or. = ilium (crest = medius; blade = minimus); ins. = greater trochanter (femur); abducts thigh Piriformis – or. = lateral sacrum; ins. = greater trochanter (femur); rotates thigh

91 Pelvic Musculature- Ref.
Psoas major – or. = ant. T12 & L1-5 vertebrae; ins. = lesser trochanter (femur); flexes thigh Iliacus – or. = anterior ileum; ins. = lesser trochanter (femur); flexes thigh Pectineus – or. = pubis; ins. = proximal medial femur; adducts thigh Adductor brevis & longus – or. = pubis; ins. = middle medial femur; adducts thigh Adductor magnus – or. = pubis & ischium; ins. = medial femur; adducts thigh

92 Thigh Musculature- Ref.
Rectus femoris (quadriceps) – or. = ant. ischial spine; ins. = patellar tendon/patella to tibial tuberosity; flexes thigh, extends leg Vastus lateralis, intermedius, & medialis (quadriceps) – or. = proximal femur (greater trochanter = lateralis; anterior femur = intermedius; medial base of neck of femur = medialis); ins. = patellar tendon/patella to tibial tuberosity; extends leg Sartorius – or. = ant. iliac spine; ins. = medial tibial tuberosity; flexes and rotates thigh, extends leg

93 Thigh Musculature- Ref.
Biceps femoris – or. = ischial tuberosity and proximal femur; ins. = head of fibula; extends thigh, flexes leg, lat. rotates leg Semimembranosus – or. = ischial tuberosity; ins. = posterior medial condyle of tibia; extends thigh, flexes leg, medially rotates leg Semitendinosus – or. = ischial tuberosity; ins. = proximal medial tibia; extends thigh & flexes leg, medially rotates leg Gracilis – or. = pubis; ins. = proximal medial tibia; adducts thigh, flexes leg

94 Leg Musculature- Ref. Tibialis anterior – or. = lateral condyle and proximal anterior shaft of tibia; ins. = dorsal metatarsal 1 & cuneiform 1; dorsiflexes foot Gastrocnemius – or. = condyles of distal femur; ins. = calcaneus via calcaneal tendon; flexes leg & plantar flexes foot Soleus – or. = proximal posterior shafts of tibia & fibula; ins. = calcaneus via calcaneal tendon; plantar flexes foot Fibularis longus – or. = lateral head of fibula and lat. condyle of tibia; ins. = lateral metatarsal 5, everts foot

95 Pelvic Floor Musculature-Ref
Ischiocavernosus – or. = ischium; ins. = pubis and conn. tissue of penis or clitoris; assists penile and clitoral erection Bulbospongiosus – or. = conn. tissue of penis or clitoris; ins. = median perineal conn. tissue; assists penile and clitoral erection, narrows vagina External anal sphincter – sphincter around anus (attached to perineal conn. tissue); closes anal opening

96 Pelvic Floor Musculature-Ref
Levator ani – or. = pubis and ischium; ins. = coccyx and median perineal conn. tissue; supports pelvic viscera and can slightly levate the anus Superficial transverse perineal – or. = ischium; ins. = median perineal conn. tissue; supports pelvic viscera Deep transverse perineal – or. = pubis & ischium; ins. = median perineal conn. tissue; supports pelvic viscera

97 Intervert./Rib Musculature –Ref.
Intercostals (external & internal) – attachments = adjacent ribs; elevate or depress ribs Interspinales – attachments = adjacent spinous processes; extend vertebral column Intertransversarius – attachments = transverse processes; lateral flexion of vertebral column Rotatores – attachments = transverse processes & neural arch; lateral flexion and rotation of vertebral column

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