Presentation on theme: "Types of Articulations/Joints"— Presentation transcript:
1 Types of Articulations/Joints Fibrous– bones joined by dense regular connective tissue; no or limited movement (periodontal, sutures, interosseus)Cartilaginous– bones joined by cartilage; some movement (costochondral, intervertebral, symphyses)Synovial – fluid filled joint cavity separates articulatory surfaces of bones; extensive movement (temporomandibular, atlanto-occipital, atlantoaxial, vertebral articular process joints, sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, glenohumeral, elbow, radiocarpal, coxal, knee, talocrural)
3 Synovial JointsArticular Discs – discs of fibrocartilage between the articular cartilages [Menisci (sing. = meniscus) – C-shaped articular discs]Extrinsic Ligaments – (outside) art. capsuleIntrinsic Extracapsular Ligaments – join bones; thickenings of articular capsuleIntrinsic Intracapsular Ligaments – join bones within the art. capsule
4 Synovial JointsBursae (sing. = bursa) – capsule containing synovial fluid, near but not part of joint; reduce frictionTendon Sheath – an elongate bursa that envelopes tendons or ligaments; reduce friction.Fat Pads – fill spaces around joints, can provide some limited protection.
12 Muscle Classifications Somatic Muscles = Superficial to coelom (develop from myotome and/or somatic lateral plate).Visceral Muscles = Deep to coelom (develop from splanchnic lateral plate).Myogenic Muscles = contraction initiated in the muscle itself.Neurogenic Muscles = contraction initiated by a nerve.
13 Skeletal Muscle Fiber Types Fast Glycolytic Fibers (“White”) = rapid contraction; quick to fatigue; large diameter; low vascularization; little myoglobin; few mitochondria.Slow Oxidative Fibers (“Red”) = slow contraction; slow to fatigue; narrow diameter; much vascularization; high myoglobin; many mitochondria.Intermediate Fibers.
14 Skeletal Muscle TermsMuscle = muscle cells and the non-contractile supporting cells that together perform a single function.Fascia = Connective tissue that surround muscle organs. (epimysium)Tendon = Dense connective tissue that attaches a muscle organ to a bone. (connect to periosteum)Aponeurosis = flat, sheet-like tendon
15 Skeletal Muscle Terms Ligaments Belly (gaster) = Fleshy part of muscle.Origin = relatively fixed site of muscle attachment.Insertion = relatively mobile site of muscle attachment.Attachment = origin or insertionLigamentsLigament = Dense connective tissue that attaches a bone to a bone.
18 Muscle Actions Flex = decrease angle btw. two parts. Extend = increase angle btw. two parts.Adduct = move a part toward the central axis or “main part.”Abduct = move a part away from the central axis or “main part.”
19 Muscle Actions Depress = move a part “down.” Levate = move a part “up.”Constrict = close or restrict openings.Dilate = open or enlarge openings.
20 Muscle NamesCombination of origin and insertion names. (origin-insertion)coracomandibularis, puboischiofemorisCombinations of attachments, homologies, position, or actions.adductor mandibulae, superficial constrictorDescriptors of size, shape, or perceived similarity.trapezius (table), pectoralis major (big pectoral)
21 Muscle DevelopmentMuscles form from mesoderm; obvious exception = the iris (ectodermal)splanchnic lateral plate mesoderm visceral smooth & cardiac musclessomatic lateral plate mesoderm some skeletal musclesmyotomal mesoderm (somitomeres and somites) most skeletal musclesprechordal mesoderm (in front of notochord) 3 extrinsic eye muscles
27 Muscle Development Somitomeres = head mesoderm segments Somites = postcranial mesoderm segmentsHorizontal septum = divides myotome of somite into dorsal (epaxial) & ventral (hypaxial) portions (in Gnathostomes).Spinal nerves have epaxial and hypaxial innervating branches.Prechordal mesoderm = median tissue under brain in front of notochord (not segmented)
29 Head/Neck Muscle Development Branchiomeric musculature = muscles of the pharyngeal & mandibular arches;derived from somitomeres with some lateral plate mesodermHypobranchial musculature = muscles extending under the pharynyx;derived from ventral myotome of anterior somites migrating anteriorly
64 Hyoid Arch Muscles Innervated by facial nerve ( VII ). V. Constrictor D. ConstrictorVentralventralhyoidconstrictorsphinctercoliplatysma,facialmuscleslevatorhyomandibulistapediusABSENTinter-hyoideusstylohyoid,posteriordigastricsharkamphibianor reptilemammal
73 Musculature Ref. - Abbreviations or. = Originins. = insertSm. # = Originates from somite #Smtm. # = Originates from somitomere #- Roman Numeral (e.g., -III or -IV) = Innervated by cranial nerve # (cranial nerves are numbered in roman numerals)- Nerve Name (e.g., -sciatic nerve or –phrenic nerve) = Innervated by named nerve
74 Head Musculature - Reference Masseter – or. = zygomatic arch; ins. = lateral surface of posterior mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - VTemporalis – or. = frontal, parietal, & temporal; ins. = coronoid process of mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - VPterygoideus – or. = maxilla, palatines, & pterygoid processes; ins. = medial mandible; elevates mandible, Smtm. 4 - VBuccinator – or. = body of mandible and maxilla; ins. = fascia of orbicularis oris; compresses cheeks, Smtm. 6 - VII
75 Head Musculature - Reference Mylohyoid – or. = medial mandible; ins. = median conn. tissue; elevates floor of mouth, depresses mandible, or elevates hyoid, Smtm. 4 - VDigastric – or. = mastoid process of temporal; central tendon loops to hyoid; ins. = medial chin; elevates hyoid or depresses mandibleAnterior digastric - Smtm. 4 - VPosterior digastric - Smtm. 6 – VIIStylohyoid – or. = stylod process; ins. = hyoid; elevates hyoid, Smtm. 6 - VII
81 Head Musculature - Reference Sternohyoid – or. = manubrium; ins. = hyoid; depresses hyoidSternothyroid – or. = manubrium; ins. = thyroid; depresses thyroid cartilageOmohyoid – or. = superior edge of scapula; ins. = hyoid; depresses hyoidScalene muscles – or. = transverse processes of cervical vert. II-VII; ins. = 1st and 2nd ribs; elevates ribs 1 and 2
82 Neck Musculature - Reference Splenius and capitis muscles – or. = Spinous or transverse processes of C1-T4 (or the median overlying dense connective tissue, the ligamentum nuchae); ins. = mastoid process of temporal occipital bone or transverse processes of the atlas; extend and rotate head (antagonistic to sternocleidomastoid)Levator scapulae – or. = transverse processes of C1-C4; ins. = superior/medial margin of scapula; elevates scapula