Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 5 The System Unit.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5 The System Unit."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 5 The System Unit

2 Overview Discuss the Types of System Units Describe System Boards
Discuss Processors Discuss Memory Discuss Expansion Slots and Cards Bus Lines, Bus Widths, Expansion Buses Describe Ports Discuss Power Supplies Discuss Numbers and Characters

3 System Unit Types Desktops Notebooks Tablets Handhelds Tower Unit
All-in-one Notebooks Laptops Netbooks Tablets Handhelds System unit (key term) is also referred to as the system chassis(Key Term) All computers have a system unit Desktop (key term) – contains electronic components and selected secondary storage. System units are placed in tower units (key term) or tower computers (key term) Notebook (key term) – contains electronic components, secondary devices, and input devices – often called laptop computers (Key Term) Netbook (key term) – like notebooks, but less powerful and less expensive, used for web browsing and Tablet (Key Term) or tablet computer – flat screen and typically do not have a keyboard. Operating system controls their operations Hand-held computer systems (key term) – entire computer system is contained in the device. Smartphone (key term) is the most popular

4 System Board AKA Motherboard All Components Connect to It
All External Devices Connect to It Acts as Data Path and Traffic Monitor Provides Sockets Connection Point For Chips System board (key term) or mainboard (key term) or motherboard (key term) – controls communication for the entire computer system

5 System Board Components
Chips AKA Semiconductor, Integrated Circuit Tiny Circuit Boards on Silicon Squares Mounted on Carrier Packages Slots Connection Points for Circuit Boards Provide Expansion Capability Bus Lines Communication Pathways for Components Sockets (key term) – connection point for chips Chips (key term) contain numerous circuits etched on a small wafer of layers of silicon and other materials Chips are mounted on carrier packages (Key Term) Chips are also referred to as a silicon chip (Key Term), semiconductor (Key Term), or integrated circuit (Key Term)

6 Microprocessor AKA Central Processing Unit or Processor Components
Brain of the Computer System Components Control Unit Directs Movement of Electronic Signals Between Memory, ALU, Input and Output Devices Arithmetic-logic Unit (ALU) Arithmetic and Logical Operations Central Processing Unit (CPU) (key term) or processor is located on the microprocessor (key term) chip and has two components - the control unit and the arithmetic-logic unit Control Unit (key term) Program instructions Directs flow between memory and Arithmetic-Logic Unit Directs flow between CPU and I/O devices Arithmetic-Logic Unit – ALU (key term) Two types of operations Arithmetic operation (Key Term) Logical operation (Key Term)

7 Microprocessor Chips Chip Capacities Expressed in Word Size Word
Number of Bits Processed at a Time 64-bit Word Standard Clock Speed Processing Speed Times Per Second CPU Processes Data A word (Key Term) is the number of bits that can be accessed at one time by the CPU 32 bit word computer can access 4 bytes at a time 64 bit word computer can access 8 bytes at a time Clock speed (key term) – number of times the CPU can fetch and process data and instructions in millionths of a second, or microseconds

8 Microprocessor Chips System Clock
Processor Speed Measured by Ticks/Second MHz – One Million Ticks/Second Type 100 Words/Minute = 8 Characters/Second MHz Character ► 50,000 Other Tasks ► Character GHz – One Billion Ticks per Second

9 Microprocessor Chips Multi-Core Chip Coprocessors
Multiple Separate and Independent CPUs Parallel Processing Divide Tasks that can be Distributed Across Each Core Supported by Windows 8 and Mac OS X Coprocessors Used to Improve Specific Operations e.g., Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Multicore chip (key term) – allow a single computer to run two or more operations at the same time Example: A dual-core process could have one core computing a complex Excel spreadsheet while the other is running a multimedia presentation. Parallel Processing (key term) – dividing tasks into parts that can be distributed across each core

10 Memory Holding Area RAM (Random-access Memory)
For Data, Instructions, and Information RAM (Random-access Memory) Volatile Holds Program Instructions and Data That CPU is Presently Processing

11 Memory Sizes

12 Memory Cache Memory ROM (Read-only Memory) Flash Memory
Temporary High-speed Holding Area Between Memory and CPU Stores Most Frequently Used Data ROM (Read-only Memory) Non-volatile, Cannot be Updated Flash Memory Non-volatile, Can be Updated

13 Expansion Slots and Cards
Allow for System Expansion Graphics Cards Sound Cards Network Interface Cards (NIC) Wireless Network Cards Plug and Play ExpressCard Expansion slots (key term) used to insert expansion cards (key term) Graphics cards (Key term) - connect the system board to the monitor; convert internal electronic signals to video signals Sound cards (key term) – convert electronic signals to audio signals and accept audio input from microphones Network Interface Cards (Key Term) (NICs or Network Interface Cards) - connect system unit to a cable (Key Term) attached to a network Wireless network cards (key term) – allow computers to be connected without cables Plug and Play (key term) – plug in any device and have it work immediately PC cards (key term) – plug into PCMCIA slots (key term) or PC cards slots (key terms) on notebooks, tablets or handhelds. Also known as ExpressCard (key term) slots

14 Bus Lines Pathway for Bits Bus Width Categories
Travel to/from CPU and Components Bus Width Number of Bits that Can Travel at Once Categories System Bus Expansion Bus Bus lines provide (key term) data pathways that connect various system components A bus line is also called a bus (Key Term) Bus width (key term) is the number of bits that can travel at once It is a pathway for bits representing data and instructions A bus is similar to a multilane highway. Every computer has two basic categories of buses System bus (key term) – connects the CPU to memory on the system board Expansion bus (key term) – connects the CPU other components and to slots on the system board

15 Ports Sockets for External Devices Standard Ports Cables
Connects to System Board or Cards Standard Ports VGA, USB, Firewire, Ethernet Cables

16 Power Supply Convert AC to DC Power System Unit Components AC Adapters
Notebooks and Handhelds Can Recharge Batteries Direct current (DC) powers computers Desktop computers have a power supply (key term) unit located within the system unit Notebook computers use AC adapters (key term) that are located outside the system unit Netbook and handheld use AC adapters

17 Electronic Data and Instructions
Analog Signals Represent Different Tones, Pitches, Volume Digital Electronic Signals Represent Two Discrete States On / Off Recognized By Computers Binary is the Equivalent Numbering System Digital signals (key terms) – electronic signals only recognized by computers Analog signals (key terms) – created by voice

18 Numeric Representation
Binary System Bit (Binary Digit) 2 Possible Digits On = 1; Positive Charge Off = 0; No Charge Byte Eight Bits Grouped Together Represent Letters, Numbers, Punctuation Hexadecimal System 16 Possible Digits Binary System (key term) – consists of only two digits, 0 and 1. Each 0 or 1 is called a bit (key term) which is short for binary digit 8 bits grouped together is a byte (key term) Binary numbers are difficult to read so they are represented in a hexadecimal system (key term) or hex using 16 digits to represent binary numbers 3 5 D

19 Character Encoding ASCII EBCDIC Unicode
American Standard Code for Information Interchange Microcomputers EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code Mainframe Unicode Uses 16 bits Character encoding standards (key term) assign a unique sequence of bits to each character Historically used ASCII (key term) for microcomputers and EBCDIC (Extended Binary coded Decimal Interchange Code) (key term) for mainframes Unicode (key term) is a new character encoding using 16 bits

20 Careers in IT Computer Technicians
Repair and Install Components and Systems Work On PCs, Mainframes, Networks, Printers Associate Degree or Computer Repair Cert Annual Salary of $31,000 - $46,000 Character encoding standards (key term) assign a unique sequence of bits to each character Historically used ASCII (key term) for microcomputers and EBCDIC (Extended Binary coded Decimal Interchange Code) (key term) for mainframes Unicode (key term) is a new character encoding using 16 bits

Download ppt "Chapter 5 The System Unit."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google