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Which of the following statements do you most agree with?

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Presentation on theme: "Which of the following statements do you most agree with?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Which of the following statements do you most agree with?
In a democracy, ordinary citizens need only petition for change and the government will respond. (B) Even in a democracy, ordinary citizens have no real means to reform the government other than revolution. (C) Protests are only necessary in non-democratic countries. (D) When all people have the right to vote, reforms will be necessary.

2 An Age of Democracy & Progress

3 Opener: Democratic ideals strongly affect Europe and its colonies.
The United States expands its borders. Technology and science change daily life.

4 Topic 1: Democratic Reform & Activism
Spurred by the demands of the people, Great Britain and France underwent democratic reforms. (pp in text)

5 Britain Enacts Reforms
A Severely Limited Democracy In the early 1800s, vote limited to men with substantial property Women could not vote at all Upper classes (5%) run the government The Reform Bill of 1832 1832 bill gives middle class suffrage – the right to vote Enlarged the electorate Also gives thriving new industrial cities more representation in parliament



8 British Parliament Today
Much different than our Congressmen and women ;-)


10 Chartist Movement The People’s Charter Universal male suffrage
Annual parliamentary elections Salaries for members of parliament Secret Ballot Would allow people to cast their votes without announcing them publicly.


12 The Victorian Age Queen Victoria
Rules for 64 years at height of British power (Longest reign in British history) Symbol of a Nation’s Values Duty, thrift, honesty, code of morals and manners A Confident Age The Middle and Working class feel great confidence in their future, as Britain expanded its already HUGE empire. Many social reforms!





17 Women Get the Vote!

18 Organization & Resistance
Many women organize to win the right to vote Some argue against it as too radical a break from tradition Others say women do not have ability to engage in politics

19 Militant Protests Emmeline Pankhurst forms:
Women’s Social and Political Union After 1903, WSPU members protest, go to jail, stage hunger strikes Women do not win suffrage in the Britain and the U.S. until after WWI



22 France & Democracy Franco-Prussian War ends a long period of French domination in Europe. Napoleon III (yes, third!) surrenders to the Prussian army after a 4 month siege of Paris. France changes governments repeatedly after Franco-Prussian War – provisional governments Third Republic – French government formed in 1875, lasts for 70 years! Legislative body, with a prime minister Over 50 coalition governments formed!

23 The Suez Canal The Suez Canal was built during this time period by France. The canal is located in NE Egypt and connects the Mediterranean, Red Sea, and Indian Ocean.

24 The Dreyfus Affair 1894 French Scandal
High ranking army officer, Alfred Dreyfus, was accused of spying for Germany. At his trial, neither Dreyfus or his lawyer were allowed to see the evidence against him. This injustice was rooted in Anti-Semitism – Prejudice against Jews He was convicted and exiled to Devil’s Island Penal Colony of the coast of South America. By 1896, new evidence pointed to another officer as the spy. The Army refused to grant Dreyfus a new trial.


26 In 1898, French novelist Emile Zola wrote an article entitle, J’Acuuse
In 1898, French novelist Emile Zola wrote an article entitle, J’Acuuse! (I Accuse). He charged the army and government with suppressing the truth. As a result, Zola was convicted of libel. He fled into exile.


28 Rise of Zionism Zionism – belief in the creation of a Jewish homeland
Grows after Dreyfus Affair

29 So What Statement? Write 2-3 sentences that describe or summarize the key points of this topic. Why is this information important?

30 Topic 2: Self-Rule for British Colonies
Britain allows self-rule in Canada, Australia, and new Zealand but delays it for Ireland.

31 Canada Struggles for Self-Rule
French and English Canada Canada was originally home to many Native American peoples Later, problems between Catholic French, Protestant British settlers Canada split: Upper Canada (English), Lower Canada (French) (pp in text)

32 1867

33 1873

34 1882

35 1895

36 1905

37 1912

38 The Durham Report This division eases tensions, but upper class holds power Middle class demands more reform, producing rebellions in 1830s John Lambton, the Earl of Durham wrote a report which called for a responsible government and a unified English speaking Canada. He also encouraged immigration from Britain to Canada Hoped to assimilate French-Canadians into British culture.

39 The Dominion of Canada Canadians want central government to protect interests against U.S. In 1867, Dominion of Canada formed Dominion – self governing, but part of the British Empire

40 Canada’s Westward Expansion
First prime minister (PM) of Canada is John MacDonald Expands Canada to Pacific, then builds transcontinental railroad

41 Australia and New Zealand
James Cook Explores Captain Cook claims New Zealand (1796), part of Australia (1770) Cook encounters Maori – native people of New Zealand Australian native peoples called Aborigines by Europeans



44 Britain’s Penal Colony
In 1788, Britain starts colonizing Australia, makes it penal colony Penal colony – place where convicts are sent to serve their sentences Upon release, prisoners could buy land and settle


46 Free Settlers Arrive! Free people eventually settle both locations
Settlers introduce sheep; wool becomes major export Government offers cheap land to encourage immigration

47 Achieving Self-Government
In 1901, Britain helps Australian provinces unite and creates the Independent Commonwealth of Australia. Australia kept the British Monarch as head of state. Unlike Britain and the U.S., Australia quickly granted women the right to vote. In 1856, it became the first nation to introduce the secret ballot.

48 Ireland A Troubled History
English expansion into and domination of Ireland begins in the late 1100s Irish Catholic majority resents British laws favoring Protestants (pp in text)

49 The Great Hunger Irish peasants depend heavily on potatoes for nourishment potato famine destroys entire crop! 1 million out of 8 million people die Millions flee Ireland to U.S., Canada, Australia, Britain (p. 730 in text)





54 The Irish Win Home Rule Demands for Home Rule
Local control over internal affairs Home rule finally granted in 1914, postponed by WWI

55 Rebellion & Division Frustrated Irish nationalist stage failed Easter Uprising in 1916 Irish Republican Army Unofficial military force seeking independence 1919, fight War of Independence against British In 1921, Ireland splits Northern Ireland becomes part of Britain South becomes Irish Free State, then Republic of Ireland in 1949



58 So What Statement? Write 2-3 sentences that describe or summarize the key points of this topic. Why is this information important?

59 Topic 3: War and Expansion in the United States
The United States expands across North America and fights a civil war (pp in text)

60 Americans Move West Manifest Destiny
U.S. has a duty to rule ocean to ocean U.S. pushes Native Americans continuously west to worse lands

61 Texas Joins the United States
American settlers enter Texas, grow unhappy with Mexican rule Win independence in 1836; U.S. annexes Texas in 1845

62 War with Mexico In 1848, U.S. wins Mexican War, gains southwest, California

63 Civil War Tests Democracy
North and South North uses free labor, has both farms and industry South depends on slave labor, grows a few cash crops (mainly cotton) Slavery fuels disagreement over states’ rights versus federal rights

64 Civil War Breaks Out Abraham Lincoln – elected in 1860, fiercely opposed by South Southern states withdraw from the Union U.S Civil War – North defeats South after bitter fighting ( )

65 The Post War Economy Immigration
By 1914, more than 20 million immigrants arrive from Europe and Asia Most immigrants settle in West, Midwest, or Northeast U.S. Immigrants provide workforce needed for industrialization

66 Railroads Transcontinental railroad links East and West in 1869
Almost 200,000 miles of track cross the U.S. by 1900 Railroads allow quick movement of goods and raw materials


68 So What Statement? Write 2-3 sentences that describe or summarize the key points of this topic. Why is this information important?

69 Topic 4: Nineteenth-Century Progress
Breakouts in science and technology transform daily life and entertainment.

70 Inventions Make Life Easier
Edison the Inventor Thomas Edison patents over 1,000 inventions

71 Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone, 1876
Guglielmo Marconi (Italian) builds first radio, 1895


73 Ford Sparks the Automobile Industry
In 1880s, Germans invent first automobile Henry Ford lowers cost with assembly line – one task per worker The Wright Brothers Fly In 1903, Wright brothers develop first working airplane

74 New Ideas in Medicine The Germ Theory of Disease
Louis Pasteur discovers existence of bacteria while observing fermentation Discover that bacteria causes disease Sterilizing reduces deaths from infections Vaccines are developed Cities improve sanitation

75 Darwin Challenges Creationism
Charles Darwin – English scientist develops Theory of Evolution In 1880s most people believed in “creation” by God


77 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Natural Selection – competition elevates “fittest” Fittest then breed, their offspring share advantages Gradually, over generations, species change; new species evolve Theory of Evolution – species change slowly through natural selection

78 Genetics Austrian monk Gregor Mendel discovers patters to inherited traits Mendel’s work begins the science of genetics

79 Social Sciences Explore Behavior
Ivan Pavlov believes human actions are actually unconscious reactions Sigmund Freud studies unconscious, develops psychoanalysis Their ideas shake Enlightenment’s faith in reason!




83 The Rise of Mass Culture
Mass Culture – art, music, writing, entertainment for large audience Changes Produce Mass Culture Leisure activities (movies, music) now available to working class Spectator sports draw huge crowds!



86 So What Statement? Write 2-3 sentences that describe or summarize the key points of this topic. Why is this information important?

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