Presentation on theme: "SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof"— Presentation transcript:
1 SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof SLA --- AN Introductory Course Prof. Wen Weiping College of Foreign Languages
2 Lecture 3 Learner Language Interlanguage 1. The three stages of development in SLA2. The concept of interlanguage3. The features of interlanguage4. Error analysis ( Cf. CA )5. Interlanguage pragmatics
3 1. Three stages of development in SLA 1st period ( 1960’s )behaviourist psychology & structural linguisticsscientific backingapplied linguistics ( most commonly accepted sense )CA ( contrastive analysis )Lado Linguistics across cultures ( 1957 )
4 cognitive psychology & TG linguistics 2nd period ( 1970’s )cognitive psychology & TG linguisticsrift between the applied & theoretical aims of researcherslearner---autonomous creator of language systemsinterlanguagecreative constructionEA ( error analysis )
5 3rd period ( 1980’s on )refine modelsseek closer links between second languageresearch and other disciplinesbranch oute.g. Interlanguage pragmatics
6 2. The concept of interlanguage Different termsinterlanguage L. Selinker ( 1972 )approximative systems Nemser ( 1971 )transitional competence Corder ( 1971 )Definitionthe systematic knowledge of an L2 which is independent of both the learner’s L1 and the target language
7 Second language development should be seen as a succession of evolving systems that took the learner nearer and nearer to target system and further and further from the source system. The source system was defined as that language which is creating the interference
8 3. The features of interlanguage --- interlanguage is permeableopen to amendmentAll the language systems are permeabledifference: loss of permeability ( fossilization )--- interlanguage is dynamicnot staticcontinually evolvingbasckslide
9 L TLIL IL IL IL IL5 IL6--- interlanguage is systematicrule-governednot select rules haphazardlybut in predictable ways
10 Fossilization --- a lack of change in interlanguage patterns Many learners ( 95% ) fail to reach target language competence, i.e., fail to reach the end of the interlanguage continuum. They stop learning when their interlanguage contains at least some rules different from those of the target language system.
11 Factors contributing to the construction of IL --- overgeneralization--- simplification--- communication-based ( strategies for compensation for missing knowledge )--- induced errors
12 4. Error analysis ( Cf. CA ) Steps of EA ( Corder, 1974 ) --- collection of a sample of learner language--- identification of errors--- description of errors--- explanation of errors--- evaluation of errors
13 collection of a sample of learner language identification of errorstypes of errors--- slip; mistake--- errors--- social gaffesthe focus of EA: errors
14 description of errors errors are described in two categories:--- linguistic categoriese.g. the skeleton of English clausesthe auxiliary systempassive sentencestemporal conjunctionsmore general categories ( morphology, syntax,vocabulary etc )
15 --- surface strategy taxonomy omissione.g *She sleeping.additione.g. * She didn’t went there.misformatione.g. * The dog ated the chicken.misorderinge.g. * What daddy is doing.
17 interlingual errors e.g. The building is tall. The man is tall. The building is high.* The man is high. intralingual errorse.g. We completed the task.They worked out a problem.* I drawed a picture.
18 unique errors e.g. This is a book. This is a desk. * This house is a white.* She is a standing. communication strategiese.g. They toast one another.He invites him to drink.air-cooler --- air-conditioner
19 evaluation of errors Problems with EA effect on the person addressed comprehension or affective responseProblems with EA--- fail to see the whole picture of language learning--- difficult to identify the source of errors--- fail to point out other strategies or problems--- focus only on speaking & writing, not on listening & reading
20 Notes on error correction --- Should errors be corrected?learning: errors should be correctedacquisition: error correction is of no use--- When should errors be corrected?manipulative grammar practice: error correctioncommunicative practice: toleratedfree conversation: no error correction--- Which errors should be corrected?global errorsstigmatized errorsmost frequently occurred errors
21 The most efficient materials are those that are based upon a scientific description of the language to be learned, carefully compared with a parallel description of the native language of the learner.---- C. Fries
22 Those elements that are similar to his native language will be simple for him, and those elements that are different will be difficult.---- Lado
23 Hierarchy of Difficulty (L1 Eng; L2 Spanish) Type of difficulty L L ExampleX porSplit X forY paraNew X grammatical gender3. Absent X “do” as a tense carrierX his4. Coalesced X suY her5. Correspondence X X ing=-ndo
24 Theoretical basis of CA behaviourist psychology structural linguisticsLA product of habit formationSLL ---- a process of overcoming the habits ofthe native language in order toacquire the new habits of the targetlanguage
25 CAH (contrastive analysis hypothesis) If trouble spots in the target language could be anticipated, errors might ve prevented or at least held to a minimum. In this way, the formation of bad habits could be avoided.
26 5. Interlanguage pragmatics Two main schools of thought in pragmatics:Anglo-American Vs European Continental--- Anglo-American traditioncomponent view of pragmaticsdefined as the scientific study of meaningcentral topics of inquiry:deixisimplicaturepresupositonspeech act
27 --- European Continental tradition perspective view of pragmaticsdefined in a far broader waye.g. Anthropological linguisticsSociolinguisticsPsycholonguisticsDiscourse analysis
28 Pragmatics constitutes a general functional ( I. e Pragmatics constitutes a general functional ( I.e. cognitive, social and cultural ) perspective on linguistic phenomena in relation to their usage in the form of behaviour.---- Verschuren
29 Pragmatics and interlanguage pragmatics central notion in pragmatic study:speech act --- all the things we do with wordswhen we speake.g. making apologiesmaking requestsexpressing gratitudemaking refusalsthe performances of the speech acts are the minimal units of human communication
30 the successful performance of the speech acts in SL the speaker’s linguistic proficiencythe speaker’s sociopragmatic perception of the speech actsto perform the speech acts properly in SL is demandinglinguistic differences between languagessociocultural differences between cultures
31 the study focus of interlanguage pragmatics the L2 learners’ realization of certain specific speech acts--- the semantic formulas--- the politeness strategies--- the first language and culture’s influences ontheir performance of the speech acts in the L2--- the social and psychological factors that affectspeech and performance the approach of interlanguage pragmaticscontrastive approachlanguage learner and native speaker differencesin speech act production and comprehension