1- Introduction: Assessments and cut-off-dates 8 credit course, two semesters 4 TMAs, 2 Quizzes, two finals. Course grade distribution and cut-off-date: First semester: TMA01: 08 %, 16 November 2008 TMA02: 10 %, 07 January 2009 Quiz one: 7%, the week of 15 December 2008 Final one: 25 %, during the month of January 2009 2
1- Introduction: Assessments and cut-off-dates Second semester: TMA03: 10 %, 26 March 2009 TMA04: 7 %, 15 May 2009 Quiz two: 8 %, during the week of 20 April 2009 Final two: 25 %, during the month of June 2009 3
1- Introduction: Before you start Power point presentation are not enough to study the course: you must study the materials units TMA late submission will lead to grade deduction penalties One week: 25 % of the grade will be deducted Between one week and two weeks: 50 % After two weeks : 100% 4
1- Introduction: Before you start Plagiarism: The grade of any common part between two TMAs of different students will not count on grade summation. Resources of used documents content should be mentioned clearly (internet, books, course material …), otherwise, the grade of the corresponding part will not count. Attendance: 6 unjustified absences will lead to course drop Attending other than your tutorials session is not allowed unless you hold a permission from the coordinator. 5
1- Introduction: to succeed the course Like any other course at AOU, to pass M150 you should: 1- Get at least 40/100 as average grade of TMAs and Quizzes AND 2- Get at least 40/100 as average grade of final one and final two AND 3- Get at least 50/100 as average of both 6
2- The course at a glance Block Three: Unit 11: Computing in the wild Unit 12: Interacting with information Unit 13: Sensational computing Unit 14: Hiding data: an introduction to security Unit 15 : Too many secrets Unit 16: Realistic expectations In the first semester we will cover the first 8 units. 8
3- Unit One: Data and information Introduction: Data, information and computers Paperless, more data Organizing and structuring data for easy access and use Example of cards holding data you may need on daily basis: Driving license Credit cards Sports club membership card Transportation card Your ID Etc … 9
This course is not about the history of computers (although that will be touched on); its about 1.data (such as a persons name, or the number of a bus route); 2.computers and how they can be made to work with data (e.g. storing it, changing it, and displaying it); 3.information (which is generated by linking items of data to answer questions of interest). The course is also about how the use of computers can affect you. Whether or not you realise it, you are not only surrounded by computers but you have a persona created by the data associated with you.
Some of the data you create yourself, consciously. Some is created when you open a bank account, enroll on a course, shop using a loyalty card, and so on. How much of this persona of yours is public, whether the data it contains is correct, and whether it should be held in the public domain, are all things you need to be aware of.
What sort of information would a doctor need in the course of his or her working day? Discussion Here is a list of the things a doctor needs to know: 1.personal information about a patient which enables the doctor to visit that patient; 2.the patients medical records which show previous treatments, any adverse reactions to treatments, and so on; 3.information about the external bodies that deal with patients, such as the location of the nearest pathology laboratory, and the name of the consultants at the local hospital who treat particular disorders; 4.information about the latest policies and procedures of the NHS (National Health Services ); 5.recent research findings relevant to a patients condition. The above list shows how daunting information requirements can be. A doctor needs everything from the simple and obvious (the patients name and address) to the complex and possibly obscure (the latest research findings on a rare disease).
Imagine wandering around your local supermarket. Mentally observe the behavior of other shoppers and the staff at the supermarket. Write down the information that these two groups need. Shoppers want information about a particular product, where it is, what it costs and perhaps nutritional information associated with the product. The store manager wants different information, such as: which items are being sold quickly so that shelves can be replenished and stock reordered; what the daily turnover of the supermarket is so that new staff can be hired when business increases. The staff who stack the shelves need to know what products to put on shelves, and where the products can be found. Staff at the check-outs need to know what some products are (e.g. different fruits, or how to distinguish pastry items) in order to enter the correct codes.
Data refers to discrete items, such as the price of an item on the shelf of a supermarket, or the type of product listed on a sign over a supermarket aisle. In contrast, information involves linking together two or more items of data to provide an item of knowledge. If someone suddenly said to you, 50p, youd be a bit puzzled. However, being told, The price of a liter of milk is 50p, would convey information. In other words, information can be thought of as the answer to a question such as: What is the price of this product? So the words 50p said in connection with nothing would mean little, but stated in answer to the above question would convey information or knowledge.
3- Unit One: Data and information Sensing data and turning it into something usable If you touch a surface, one of the things you will sense is its temperature We have developed words like hot, cold, warm, and cool Such words allow us to link one sensation (touch) to another (vision) Since science doesnt deal with words, scientists have developed more objective measures of hot and cold, such as the length of a column of mercury in a thermometer. Thermometers can then be used to compare temperatures by dividing the column of mercury into gradations, called degrees Celsius (written °C). 15
3- Unit One: Data and information Sensing data and turning it into something usable If you touch What we perceive with our senses we call the most primitive form of data: perceptual data. Example 3.1, touching a surface A surface, one of the things you will sense is its temperature A sign or symbol is a way of representing data. A sign (or symbol) can be defined as something that conveys some information by means other than direct representation. Beeping sound Arrow traffic Flags Legends on maps 16
3- Unit One: Data and information Louis Braille, the inventor of the braille system Each letter of the alphabet could be represented by six raised dots arranged in three rows. The dots are precisely placed in relation to each other The 63 combinations of dots and positions comprise an alphabet, numerals, the main mathematical signs and a music notation. The braille system also freed those with a visual impairment to write for themselves 17
3- Unit One: Data and information Data and information Human beings turn data into information through a process of: creating signs to represent the data; agreeing on what the signs symbolize; linking these signs in a variety of ways to create information; communicating that information to other people. Example 3.2 18
What has any of this to do with computers? Human beings invented computers because we have a compelling interest in data. We seek to turn our perceptions of sensations into symbols, and then to store, analyse, process, and turn these symbols into something else: information. Modern computers, with their enormous storage capacity and incredible processing power, are an ideal tool for doing this. They allow us to acquire data, code it in terms of signs, store, retrieve, or combine it with other data. Sophisticated output devices allow us to present the results of all this processing (i.e. information) in ways that were hitherto impossible, too time consuming, or too expensive.
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image) of human brain, shows different intensities for different parts. The image easily detect a tumor using different color.
3- Unit One: Data and information Computers as tools for finding Maps: - the underlying grid of latitude and longitude; - contour lines showing altitude; - features such as rivers, roads, buildings and boundaries; - the names of towns, roads, hills, rivers and other notable features of the landscape. 21
3- Unit One: Data and information Geographical data Stored in databases Leave out some layers for a particular purpose Global positioning system (GPS) Navigation Surveying Plate tectonic studies GPS devices Receivers Emitters Tools Benefits (Examples) 22
3- Unit One: Data and information Finding information: the web Search engines Single box waiting the keyword Serves a similar function to an index in a book Example: Google, Yahoo, Lycos, … 23
3- Unit One: Data and information Finding information: the web The process: 1.The keywords are transmitted over the internet to a web server that contains an index to websites which is associated with a series of keywords that can be found in the sites title, address or contents. The index keywords and the users requested keywords are compared by the server. 2.The web server then retrieves references to those websites that contain the right keywords and sends details of each reference back to the users browser. 3.The browser then displays the references for the user. 24
3- Unit One: Data and information Finding information: the web Efficient search: the gateways Composed keywords Research refinement Tracking your search path Example 4.1 25
3- Unit One: Data and information Computers as tools for working with data DNA A DNA strand, bases, nucleotides, genes, and a chromosome (a) A small section of a DNA strand as though it were untwisted. Each box represents a base (A, C, G or T). Each pair of bases forms one nucleotide. Several nucleotides make up a gene (shown by brackets) (b) How the strand of DNA in (a) is twisted into the famous double helix (c) A chromosome formed from one DNA strand 26
3- Unit One: Data and information Computers as tools for working with data DNA: - It consists of pairs of chemical bases called adenine (A), cystosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). -The bases (which in Figure 5.1 are colour coded) can only be paired according to the rules: A to C and G to T. - A rung or pair of bases (e.g. A–C) is called a base pair. - A nucleotide is a base pair plus its attached structural molecules (i.e. the sides of the ladder). - Sequences of base pairs constitute genes which are the sections of a DNA strand that form discrete units of heredity (such as eye colour). - A complete DNA strand constitutes a chromosome (a human being has 46 of these combined into 23 pairs). - The four letters (A, C, G, and T) representing the DNA bases constitute signs symbolising the building blocks of DNA. You can think of a set of signs as a code. 27
3- Unit One: Data and information Computers as tools for working with data The human genome The human chromosomes. An X and Y chromosome is shown as the final pair, meaning that the individual would be a male (females have two X chromosomes) 28
3- Unit One: Data and information Computers as tools for working with data Genetic tests are used for several reasons including: Prenatal diagnostic test Alzheimer disease Identity testing Etc… 29
3- Unit One: Data and information Art and the computers Photograph Painting Infinite color spectrum Transforming the natural to the designed Modifying, customizing and reviewing. 30
3- Unit One: Data and information Controlling things The user interface Displaying the choices Displaying indications Choosing programs and parameters Ensuring safety Controlling the machine Actuators Sensors 31
3- Unit One: Data and information Selling on the web Browse through the details of the goods for sale Search for a particular product Check the availability of goods Read and review the comment of other purchasers Register to receive newsletters But product using credit or debit cards See what items are most popular 32
3- Unit One: Data and information Distributed system The web The database The database server The network 33
4- Whats next Unit 2: Representation Convention communication and representation Property of representations Picking representations Sharing and formats Computer based activity: a case study 34
A computer system is the combination of: the computer (with its processor and storage); other equipment such as a scanner or printer; the software programs that make it all work.