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Amnesty Issue Macdonald and Laurier Trade Power

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Presentation on theme: "Amnesty Issue Macdonald and Laurier Trade Power"— Presentation transcript:

1 1870-1885 Amnesty Issue Macdonald and Laurier Trade Power
Métis moving West National Policy North West Mounted Police Established In between the Rebellions, there is 15 years. What happens is: Amnesty- Ask students what Amnesty is for answer: official forgiveness. Example, you can be given amnesty for minor offenses on your criminal record that prevent you from entering the USA. Issue: all of provisional government granted amnesty except Riel, though this took a while to receive and was very political. (East vs. West) Métis- Why would the Métis leave Manitoba? Prompt students for answers: end of buffalo hunt, tense relations with settlers, new opportunities. Macdonald and Laurier- various elections where the two trade power. National Policy- we will talk more about this after Spring Break, but it was a big national project to unite the country. NWMP- Canada now has a permanent law and order presence in the West; Canadian west is not like the American Wild West, largely because of NWMP CPR Scandal- PM is tarnished Riel elected- Riel shows repeatedly that he is supported by the Red River settlers, and yet still loathed in Eastern Canada Immigration- Whereas nearly 80% of Red River during the early days was composed of mixed ancestory people (country-born and Métis), with massive immigration, this is changing. Immigration (Canadian, European) CPR Scandal Louis Riel Elected to and Barred from House of Commons

2 North West Rebellion: Timeline People Events External Influences
: Railway costs rising, budget to Indian department cut 1884: Bison hunt over, many reserves facing starvation Louis Riel returns from Montana Métis Bill of Rights created (page 193) CPR almost bankrupt 1885: Manitoba Militia moving into North-West Territories March: Riel gives speech: Justice commands us to take up arms Battle at Duck Lake (SK), 12 NWMP dead April Canadian troops deployed (via CPR) Dumont+ 60 troops hold off 1600 miltia May: At Batoche, 725 militia attack 175 Métis. Riel captured, Dumont escapes. Summer: Canadian troops track down all Métis leaders Fall: Riel tried in Regina (SK) November 7: Last Spike November 16: Riel hanged Pictures at: Duck Lake, Riel Caught, Last Spike, Hanging

3 North West Rebellion: Timeline People Events External Influences
CPR North West Mounted Police The Jury (pg 197) NWMP- prompt students to recall importance of NWP (law and order) and what they became (RCMP) CPR- Importance to the NWRebellions is that whereas for Red River Rebellions, the colony was isolated, now, there is mobility of troops, arms, supplies and information far quicker to and from eastern Canada. The colony is no longer so isolated and Canada exerts more control. The Métis and settlers have less control as CPR now is the major non-governmental force, and almost exists as a government proxy. The Jury- Even in 1885, the right to be tried by a jury of one’s peers existed. Look to page 197- was Riel tried by a jury of his peers? Did this make a difference?

4 “Riel was tried for treason and hanged for the execution of Scott.”
North West Rebellion: Timeline People Events External Influences $$$ First Nations vs. Métis- As a result of the Treaty process, Métis and FN were treated very differently. Métis were better off. Railroad and Money- the influence of the CPR (as previously discussed), the problems of CPR (Indian department cut, this was Macdonald’s own ministry) West vs. East- Get students to explain the meaning of this quote. What treasonous act did Riel perform? Fighting against the government of Canada at Duck Lake, killing Canadian troops, rallying people against the government reps of Canada in Manitoba (though he did want to join the country and the major proclamation against Riel was in fact forged). Racism- still rampant and growing; still to come was the internments of Chinese/Japanese/German Canadians, Komagatamaru, etc. “Riel was tried for treason and hanged for the execution of Scott.” Racism

5 The Métis Bill of Rights, December 1, 1869 Canadian Northwest
1. The right to elect our Legislature. 2. The Legislature to have power to pass all laws, local to the Territory, over the veto of the Executive, by a two-third vote. 3. No act of the Dominion Parliament (local to this Territory) to be binding on the people until sanctioned by their representatives. 4. All sheriffs, magistrates, constables, etc., etc., to be elected by the people -- a free homestead pre-emption law. 5. A portion of the public lands to be appropriated to the benefit of schools, the building of roads, bridges and parish buildings. 6. A guarantee to connect Winnipeg by rail with the nearest line of railroad -- the land grant for such road or roads to be subject to the Legislature of the Territory. 7. For 4 years the public expenses of the Territory, civil, military and municipal, to be paid out of the Dominion treasury. 8. The military to be composed of the people now existing in the Territory. 9. The French and English language to be common in the Legislature and Council, and all public documents and acts of Legislature to be published in both languages. 10. That the Judge of the Superior Court speak French and English. 11. Treaties to be concluded and ratified between the Government and several tribes of Indians of this Territory, calculated to insure peace in the future. 12. That all privileges, customs and usages existing at the time of the transfer to be respected. 13. That these rights be guaranteed by Mr. McDougall before he be admitted into this Territory. 14. If he have not the power himself to grant them, he must get an act of Parliament passed expressly securing us these rights; and until such act be obtained, he must stay outside of the Territory. 15. That we have a full and fair representation in the Dominion Parliament. Source: Alexander Begg, (Toronto: 1971), p. 110.

6 The Trial Louis Riel

7 The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence
"When a man do levy war against our Lord the King in his realm... or be adherent to the King's enemies in his realm, giving them aid and comfort in the realm and elsewhere, and thereof be proveably attainted of open deed by the people of their condition...this shall be one ground upon which the party accused of the offence and legally proved to have committed the offence, shall be held to be guilty of the crime of high treason." 1352 Statute of Treasons (Britain) Indicted July 6, 1885 in Regina Complainant: Alexander David Stewart (Chief of Police, Hamilton ON) 6 counts of Treason Duck Lake x 3 Fish Creek x 2 Batoche

8 Saints Prosecution Case….
Saints Defense Case…

9 The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence
How did the rebellion carry on (What proof is there of the acts of treason)? The Government of Canada “had wholly failed in its duty to the NWT” Credits Métis for civilizing “the Indians”: has done more for the NW than anything that has ever been done before “…2,000 miles away from Ottawa… without one single voice to be raised in their favour…” To what extent is Riel responsible for proven acts? Sanity “Did he… stand back or stand from under and endeavour to save himself?” Riel’s character: “You have this man here, this deep, designing, cunning man, this man with wonderful intellect…” Justice to Riel: “I know you will do him justice, and that this man shall not be sent to the gallows by you, and that you shall not weave the cord that shall hang and hang him high in the face of all the world, a poor confirmed lunatic; a victim, gentlemen, of oppression or the victim of fanaticism.” Charles Fitzpatrick We find men brought here from the east and from the west, from the north and from the south, for the purpose of vindicating the cause of the Government. What I now see before me is but a shred of it, but even a shred of that jury is sufficient to save a man, when that shred is woven by such material as that that I now see before me. You have but the shred of a jury, but it is sufficient, I trust, in this case, to see that justice is done. First, gentlemen, we must limit ourselves to a plain statement of the facts and ask you to bear in mind but two things. In the first place, to what extent, and how was this rebellion carried on as it has been described here? What proof has been given before you by the Crown of the overt acts of treason laid at the door of this man. And secondly, to what extent is he responsible for those acts? Now, gentlemen, it is probably right for me to say here that no one of any nationality, of any creed, whatever may be the source whence he derives the blood in his veins, can justify the rebellion, but it may, at the same time, be proper for me to say, to draw your attention to the fact that criminal folly and neglect would have gone unpunished had there been no resistance. It is right for me to say, gentlemen, that the Government of Canada had wholly failed in its duty towards these North-West Territories We have therefore, gentlemen, this bond of union between civilization and the Indian, and I say gentlemen, that that bond of union represented by the Metis has been one of the greatest factors in the civilization of the Indian. I say that this bond of union which is represented by the Metis has done more for the North-West country than anything that has ever been done for it heretofore. here you have those Metis, gentlemen of the jury, you have those unfortunate Metis of the Saskatchewan 2,000 miles away from Ottawa, 2,000 miles away from this representative House of Parliament and without one single representative either constitutional or otherwise to represent them, without one single voice to be raised in their favor. If he is a lunatic, we, in the exercise of a sound discretion, have done right to endeavor to prove it. If he is a sane man, what humiliation have we passed upon that man, we his counsel endeavoring, despite his orders, despite his desire, despite his instructions, to make him out a fool. At a given moment. if he is a sane man - that movement, like all other popular movements, got ahead of him, got beyond his control. Then, gentlemen, did he after fanning the flame, did he after fomenting the trouble, like some others, turn his back on the men whom he had put into the trouble and into the difficulty? Did he like some of the men who stood in that box - did he after fomenting the discord, after inciting those unfortunate men to rebellion, after placing their necks in the halter - did he stand back or stand from under and endeavor to save himself? Did he play the part of the coward or the traitor? Did he play the part of the sycophant who comes and kneels at the feet of the Government, endeavoring to seek a victim amongst his friends and relations? Did he, gentlemen of the jury, with all this magnanimity which has been represented to stand on other heads, with all this glory, has been endeavored to be put on the heads of other people? Did he fly and leave women and children to be massacred? and did he fly from the hands of justice, or did he stand his ground like a man, and did he come before the representatives of Her Majesty and say, if any is to suffer, let me suffer; if anyone is to be punished, let me be punished; if any victim is to be found, I am the victim that is to go upon the scaffold; and I fought for liberty, and if liberty is not worth fighting for, it is not worth having? Now you have this deep, designing man - remember you have this man here with wonderful intellect, this man here with a wonderful judgment, actually undertaking to effect the purpose of obliging Canada to grant him his requests. You have this man here, this deep, designing, cunning man, this man with wonderful intellect, expecting to succeed in forcing the Dominion of Canada, backed by England, to accede to his demand with four or five hundred Metis at his back. You have in addition to that this cunning man, this man with full knowledge of the character of his fellow-men I know, gentlemen, that right will be done. I know you will do him justice, and that this man shall not be sent to the gallows by you, and that you shall not weave the cord that shall hang and hang him high in the face of all the world, a poor confirmed lunatic; a victim, gentlemen, of oppression or the victim of fanaticism.

10 The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence
Proves the events took place willfully “There is no dispute, there is not a single witness whose word has been doubted, there is not a single fact proved on the part of the Crown.” “…carried out with deliberation and intention, that it was the result of no sudden impulse, that it was no outburst of passion, but it was clearly, calmly, and deliberately opened and carried out.” Holds Riel responsible Medical opinion Could an insane man lead these armies?: “They place their lives and property under his control and direction, and trusting in his judgment they risk both in obedience to his advice.” Lament’s Riel’s actions “If he had only considered this was a free land and a land where free speech will always get a man his rights, there would have been no difficulty or trouble in the matter.” Points out contradictions in defense's case “They cannot claim for their client what is called a niche in the temple of fame and at the same time assert that he is entitled to a place in a lunatic asylum.” Justice to the whole: “We have the cause of public justice entrusted to our hands; we have the duty of seeing that the cause of public justice is properly served, that justice is done.”

11 The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence
Clerk of the Court:  Gentlemen are you agreed upon your verdict? How say you, is the prisoner guilty or not guilty? (The jury find the prisoner guilty.) Clerk of the Court : Gentlemen of the jury, hearken to your verdict as the court records it, 'You find the prisoner, Louis Riel, guilty, so say you all.' (The jury answer 'guilty.') A Juror: Your Honors, I have been asked by my brother jurors to recommend the prisoner to the mercy of the Crown. Mr. Justice Richardson: I may say in answer to you that the recommendation which you have given will be forwarded in proper manner to the proper authorities. July 31, 1885

12 The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence
Mr. Justice Richardson: Louis Riel, after a long consideration of your case, in which you have been defended with as great ability as I think counsel could have defended you with, you have been found by a jury… You have been found guilty of high treason.  You have been proved to have let loose the flood gates of repine and bloodshed… …For me, I have only one more duty to perform, that is, to tell you what the sentence of the law is upon you…It is not my painful duty to pass the sentence of the court upon you… that on the 18th of September next you be taken to the place appointed for you execution, and there be hanged by the neck till you are dead, and may God have mercy on your soul. July 31, 1885 Hugh Richardson

13 Looking back from the 21st Century…
The Charges Defense Prosecution Verdict Sentence Looking back from the 21st Century… Legitimacy of Charges Riel’s citizenship Application of law in North-West Territories Jury Composition Trial Location Jury of peers Language More…?

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