Presentation on theme: "Problem Behavior in the Classroom"— Presentation transcript:
1 Problem Behavior in the Classroom Assessment and Intervention Strategies for TeachersAbby Twyman, M.Ed., BCBA, LBADirector of Behavioral Services
2 Introduction Who am I and what do I do? Who are you and what do you do?Today we’re going to be learning:Basic principles of behaviorHow to assess behavior problemsHow to identify the function of problem behaviorHow to intervene when the function is ACCESS (Day 1) or ESCAPE (Day 2)Behavioral expectations of participants:Ask questionsBe respectfulCreate connectionsDiscuss ideas
3 Basic Principles of Behavior Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is the science of learningAll learning happens through a 3-term contingencyABCs of learningA = Antecedent: the instruction or environmental cueB = Behavior: the response to the antecedentC = Consequence: the result of the behaviorThe consequence following the behavior either makes the behavior more likely or less likely to occur againIf the consequence is good then the behavior is likely to happen again; this is called REINFORCEMENTIf the consequence is bad then the behavior is not likely to happen again; this is called PUNISHMENT
4 Basic principles of behavior Whether a consequence is REINFORCING or PUNISHING is in the eye of the beholderConsider these examples:John leaves the toilet paper roll empty. The next time Jane goes into the bathroom she changes the roll, yells at John about how inconsiderate he is and then gives him the silent treatment.Paula did not study for her spelling test. As the spelling test is about to start she pushes Nick and calls him a mean name. Mrs. Twyman sends Paula to the office to speak with the principal.Zeke wants the basketball that Jordan is using. He runs up to Jordan, grabs the ball, pushes him and runs away. The recess teacher makes Zeke apologize for pushing, then lets him go play basketball.Discuss: What did each person receive as a consequence of their behavior? Will the behavior happen again?
5 Basic Principles of behavior Behavior is more likely to occur if it is REINFORCEDReinforcement comes in 2 forms: Positive and NegativePositive reinforcement is when the person receives something desirable as a consequence for their behavior (ACCESS)Negative reinforcement is when the person avoids something undesirable as a consequence for their behavior (ESCAPE)Discuss: In the classroom, what examples can you think of related to positive and negative reinforcement?
6 Basic principles of behavior ACCESS or ESCAPE can either be direct or socially-mediatedDirect AccessOpen up the cabinet to gain access to the chipsSocially-Mediated AccessAsk mom for some chips and she gets them out of the cabinetDirect EscapeWalk out of the room when it’s too loudSocially-Mediated EscapeTell the teacher it’s too loud and the teacher instructs students to talk quietlyIn the classroom we are usually seeing problem behaviors which are SMA or SME, so our discussion will focus on these
7 Basic principles of behavior Motivating Operations are environmental events which alter the reinforcing or punishing effectiveness of consequencesMotivating Operations can be divided into two typesEstablishing operations (EO) – value of an outcome is increasedAbolishing operations (AO) – value of an outcome is decreasedAn example of this related to behavior to gain access to toysEO: A student will be more motivated to engage in behavior related to gaining access to toys when they have not had access to the toys in a while and if there are not a lot of toys availableAO: A student will be less motivated to engage in behavior related to gaining access to toys when they have had access to the toys recently and if there are a plethora of toys available
8 Basic principles of behavior When a pattern of problem behavior is identified, we…Conduct an assessmentIdentify the function of the behaviorModify behavior by making environmental changesSetting event strategies: modifying motivational operations to change the value of reinforcers and punishersAntecedent strategies: modifying instructions or environment to increase likelihood of appropriate behaviorReplacement behaviors: choose functionally equivalent, pro-social behaviors to teach the studentConsequence strategies: plan for reinforcement of desired behavior and punishment of problem behavior
9 Assessing Problem behavior Before we begin the assessment process we need to determine if intervention is necessary.Screening questions:Does the individual’s behavior pose a danger to himself or others?Does the behavior pose a health or safety hazard to the student or others?Does the behavior affect the student’s welfare in the current environment?Does the behavior prevent the individual from accessing the general education curriculum or less restrictive environments in the school, home or community?If the answer is yes to any of the questions, assessment and intervention is warranted!
10 Assessing problem behavior Before beginning the student assessment:Conduct Classroom-Management Self-AssessmentIf there are areas in which improvement is needed, address those first before focusing attention on the individual studentFive steps to collecting functional behavior assessment data:Obtain a baseline measurement of observable problem behaviorsConduct a functional behavior assessmentPerform a discrepancy analysisReview educational recordsReview previous treatmentsReview health and medical records
11 Assessing problem behavior Classroom Management Self-AssessmentMaximize structure and predictability in classroomPositively stated expectations are posted, taught and reinforcedStudents actively engaged in observable waysContinuum of strategies to acknowledge appropriate behaviorContinuum of strategies to respond to inappropriate behaviorConduct assessment and identify if there are areas in which you need to improve related to classroom managementProblem behaviors could be attributable to problems with classroom management, not a problem with the studentIf classroom management strategies are excellent and student behavior is still a problem, proceed with student assessment of problem behavior
12 Assessing problem behavior Baseline measurement of observable problem behaviorsDefine the behavior in observable and measureable termsWhat does the behavior LOOK like?Does it have a clear beginning and end?What are examples of the behavior?What are non-examples of the behavior?How are you going to collect data on the behavior?Frequency? Duration? Percentage/Interval?Collect baseline data for a week unless the problem behavior presents a danger to the student or othersHow many times per day/week is the behavior occurring?
13 Assessing problem behavior Conduct a functional behavior assessmentDirect observation is essentialAssessment methods:Behavioral interviewA-B-C descriptive analysisScatterplotAssessment attempts to answer:Under what conditions is behavior more/less likely?During which parts of the day is the behavior more/less likely?What usually happens as a consequence of the students behavior?What strategies work to prevent the behavior from occurring?What strategies work to stop the behavior once it has started?
14 Assessing Problem Behavior Perform a performance discrepancy analysisMany times it is helpful to analyze the discrepancy between the performance of peers and the performance of the studentQuestions to ask/answer:How often do same-aged peers engage in the target behavior?What constitutes an acceptable level of behavior?Collect same data on peer group across a week to determine an average number of behaviorsThis data assists teacher in developing reasonable goals
15 Assessing problem behavior Review educational recordsWhat is the history of the behavior?Does the student have academic problems?Review previous treatments implementedWhat has/has not worked in the past?Review health and medical recordsAre there medical/psychological issues which may be increasing the likelihood of behavior occurring?Is a referral for outside services warranted?
16 Identify the function of behavior The information gathered during the assessment process should elucidate how often, when and why a behavior is occurringMost behaviors you’ll encounter in the classroom will serve the function of Socially-Mediated Access (SMA) or Socially- Mediated Escape (SME)Day 1 – Interventions for SMA problem behaviorsDay 2 – Interventions for SME problem behaviors
17 Function: Socially-Mediated Access Intervention strategies for the classroom
18 Identify the function of behavior Socially-Mediated Access (SMA) to:Adult/staff attentionDuring independent work time, Anna will get out of her seat and wander the classroom. When this occurs the teacher typically has her sit at the table by her desk and interacts with Anna while she works.Peer attentionAt recess, Billy will run across the soccer field and bump into other kids. The other kids typically start chasing him and yelling at him which Billy seems to enjoy as evidenced by the big smile on his face.Tangible reinforcersDuring free-choice time, if a student has something she wants Carla will become physically aggressive (e.g., hit, kick, pull hair) with the other student. The other student will typically move away from the area and Carla usually gets access to the preferred item or activity.
19 Assessment Data for Anna Behavioral definition: Anna is considered to be “out of her seat” when she is supposed to working independently and she did not ask permission. If she asks to get out of her seat, this will not be counted.Type of data: FrequencyBaseline data: 25 times per dayDiscrepancy analysis: 3 time per day
20 Assessment Data for Anna Scatterplot data:A-B-C data:ActivityFrequencyMorning Work5Math7Reading3WritingFree ChoiceABCMorning workAnna gets up 5 timesTeacher talks to her dayMath assignmentAnna gets up 7 timesTeacher prompts to sit downReading assignmentAnna gets up 3 timesTeacher tells to come to front table to readWriting assignmentTeacher has sit at front tableFree choiceAnn gets up 5 timesTeacher goes over and does puzzle with her
21 Intervention plan for Anna Socially-Mediate Access to Adult AttentionDuring independent work time, Anna will get out of her seat and wander the classroom. When this occurs the teacher typically has her sit at the table by her desk and interacts with Anna while she works.Setting event strategiesAbolishing Operation – provide Anna with extra attention throughout the day to decrease the value of attention as a reinforcerAntecedent strategiesPrior to independent work time, remind Anna that she needs to work at her desk and that she can raise her hand if she needs helpReplacement behaviorTeach Anna to raise her hand and ask to sit at the table next to the teacher’s deskConsequence strategiesProvide Anna with attention for engaging in the desired behaviorProvide Anna with attention for engaging in the replacement behaviorDo not provide Anna with attention for engaging in the problem behavior
22 Assessment Data for Billy Behavioral definition: Bumping into peers is defined as his body touching the body of a peer while walking or running past them. Accidental bumps will not be counted.Type of data: FrequencyBaseline data: 20 times per dayDiscrepancy analysis: 1 time per day
23 Assessment Data for billy Scatterplot data:A-B-C data:ActivityFrequencyGroup work1Recess10MathFree choice7Science2ABCWorking with peerWalked by and bumped with shoulderPeer turned and smiled and said “stop it Billy!”Soccer field at recessRan by 10 peers and hit with armPeers yelled at him and 2 started to chaseFree choice, playing carsCrawled by peer and ran into their legsPeer got car and started racing cars with BillyScience experimentWalked by peer and bumped with kneePeers told him to stop and then told the teacher
24 Intervention plan for billy Socially-Mediate Access to Peer AttentionAt recess, Billy will run across the soccer field and bump into other kids. The other kids typically start chasing him and yelling at him which Billy seems to enjoy as evidenced by the big smile on his face.Setting event strategiesAbolishing Operation – provide many opportunities throughout the day for Billy to work with and play with peers to decrease the valueAntecedent strategiesHave Billy read a social story about how to get the attention of peers in an appropriate way and role-play before recessReplacement behaviorTeach Billy skills to gain the attention of peers in a pro-social wayConsequence strategiesPeers provide attention to Billy when he engages in desired behaviorPeers provide attention to Billy when he uses replacement behaviorPeers do not provide attention when Billy engages in problem behavior
25 Assessment Data for carla Behavioral definition: Physical aggression is defined as any contact between Carla and a peer which results in the peer becoming upset. Includes hitting, kicking, pushing, hair pulling, etc. Does not include contact which is expected such as during a game of tag or when gaining a person attention.Type of data: FrequencyBaseline data: 15 times per dayDiscrepancy analysis: 0 times per day
26 Assessment Data for carla Scatterplot data:A-B-C data:ActivityFrequencyRecess2MathReadingFree Choice10Snack3ABCPlaying basketballKicked another studentStudent dropped the ball and Carla got itFree choice – peers playing with dollsPushed a peer and pulled doll out of her handsPeer left doll area and went to tell the teacherSnack – peer next to her eating cookiesPulled peer’s hairPeer left table, Carla ate one of peer’s cookies
27 Intervention plan for carla Socially-Mediate Access to Tangible ReinforcersDuring free-choice time, if a student has something she wants Carla will become physically aggressive (e.g., hit, kick, pull hair) with the other student. The other student will typically move away from the area and Carla usually gets access to the preferred item or activity.Setting event strategiesAbolishing operations – Make preferred items and activities readily available to decrease the value of the reinforcerAntecedent strategiesPrior to free-choice time, remind Carla of expected behaviorReplacement behaviorTeach Carla to ask peers for items/activities and wait for her turnConsequence strategiesPeer provides access to item/activity when Carla engages in desired behavior or uses replacement behaviorPeer does not provide access to item/activity when Carla engages in problem behavior
29 Function: Socially-Mediated Escape Intervention strategies for the classroom
30 Identify the function of behavior Socially-Mediated Escape (SME) from:Unpleasant social situationsIn the lunch room, when Danny tries to sit down at a table, the other students tell him to go sit somewhere else. Danny will push or hit the other students. The recess monitor will usually send him to the office.Relatively lengthy tasksDuring long work assignments, Erin will get up multiple times to sharpen her pencil or go to the bathroom. Many times this results in her not completing the assignment and getting poor grades.Relatively difficult tasksWhen given a difficult assignment during math class, Fernando will crumple the paper, throw it at the teacher, refuse to do the work and call her names. This typically results in him getting sent to the office.Aversive physical stimuli/eventOn days when there is an assembly, Greta will refuse to enter the gym by yelling at the teacher and then running into the bathroom and locking the stall door. The teacher makes her go to the office until it is over.
31 Assessment Data for danny Behavioral definition: Pushing and hitting is defined as any contact between Danny’s hands and the body of another student. Touching to get the person’s attention or accidental contact will not be counted.Type of data: FrequencyBaseline data: 4 times per weekDiscrepancy analysis: 0 times per week
32 Assessment Data for danny Scatterplot data:A-B-C data:ActivityFrequencyLunch4MathReadingWritingScienceABCTrying to find a seat in the lunchroom, student told him he couldn’t sitHit student in the face with a open palmRecess monitor sent to office to eat lunchWalking by a table trying to find a spot, a student tripped him and laughedPushed student and student fell on the ground
33 Intervention plan for danny Socially-Mediate Escape from Unpleasant Social SituationsIn the lunchroom, when Danny tries to sit down at a table, the other students tell him to go sit somewhere else. Danny will push or hit the other students. The recess monitor will usually send him to the office.Setting event strategiesEstablish Operation – set up a lunch buddy system to make the value of staying in the lunchroom greaterAntecedent strategiesRemind Danny about behavioral expectations and problem solving strategies to use if something doesn’t go his wayReplacement behaviorTeach Danny to request eating lunch in the office and request for assistance finding a place to sitConsequence strategiesReinforce use of desired or replacement behavior with lunch in officeDo not reinforce problem behavior, prompt to use replacement
34 Assessment Data for erin Behavioral definition: Off-task behavior is defined as being out of her seat with or without permission when she is supposed to be working on an assignment.Type of data: Frequency and percent completedBaseline data: 35 times per day, 40% completedDiscrepancy analysis: 5 times per day, 90% completed
35 Assessment Data for erin Scatterplot data:A-B-C data:ABCMath testGot up multiple times to get waterDid not complete testSilent readingWent to the bathroom and up talkingRead half of the assigned chapterWriting letter to the presidentSharpened pencil 8 timesWrote two sentencesScience experimentWalking around talking to peersDidn’t complete assignmentGroup workSharpened pencil and went to the bathroomFinished part of the assignmentActivityFrequencyPercentMath730%Reading650%Writing840%Science1025%History955%
36 Intervention plan for erin Socially-Mediate Escape from Relatively Lengthy TasksDuring long work assignments, Erin will get up multiple times to sharpen her pencil or go to the bathroom. Many times this results in her not completing the assignment and getting poor grades.Setting event strategiesEstablishing operation – increase the value of completing assignments by linking to reinforcement systemAntecedent strategiesModify the length of the assignment if neededReplacement behaviorTeach to request to take a break during the assignmentConsequence strategiesReinforce for desired or replacement behaviorDo not reinforce problem behavior by requiring task completion
37 Assessment Data for fernando Behavioral definition: Refusal to do work is defined as verbally protesting, crumpling or ripping work and leaving work area without permission.Type of data: FrequencyBaseline data: 5 times per dayDiscrepancy analysis: 0 times per day
38 Assessment Data for fernando Scatterplot data:A-B-C data:ActivityFrequencyArtMath3ReadingWriting2ScienceABCTeacher handed him math worksheetCrumpled paper, threw at teacher and yelled “No!!”Teacher told him to go do a math game on the computerSpit at teacher and kicked herTeacher sent him to the officeGiven writing assignmentPoked peer with his pencilSent to the principles office
39 Intervention plan for fernando Socially-Mediate Escape from Relatively Difficult TasksWhen given a difficult assignment during math class, Fernando will crumple the paper, throw it at the teacher, refuse to do the work and call her names. This typically results in him getting sent to the office.Setting event strategiesEstablishing operation – increase the value to completing difficult assignments by linking to meaningful reinforcement systemAntecedent strategiesModify assignment if appropriate and clarify expectationsReplacement behaviorTeach Fernando to request different work or negotiate the numberConsequence strategiesReinforce desired and replacement behaviorDo not reinforce problem behavior, prompt to use replacement
40 Assessment Data for greta Behavioral definition: Refusal is defined as verbally protesting and running from the designated area.Type of data: FrequencyBaseline data: 1 time per weekDiscrepancy analysis: 0 times per week
41 Assessment Data for greta Scatterplot data:A-B-C data:ActivityFrequencyArtGymLunchAssembly1MathABCWalking to assemblyYells “I’m not going” and runs to the bathroomTeacher gives choice of going to assembly or waiting in office
42 Intervention plan for greta Socially-Mediate Escape from Aversive Physical Stimuli/EventOn days when there is an assembly, Greta will refuse to enter the gym by yelling at the teacher and then running into the bathroom and locking the stall door. The teacher makes her go to the office until it is over.Setting event strategiesAbolishing operation – decrease the value of leaving the gym by providing with ear plugsAntecedent strategiesModify expectations by requiring her to stay for shorter timeReplacement behaviorTeach her to request to not attend the assemblyConsequence strategiesReinforce desired and replacement behaviorDo not reinforce problem behavior, prompt to use replacement