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Classification of Matter

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1 Classification of Matter
Chapter 15 Classification of Matter

2 Pure Substances Materials are made of a pure substance or a mixture of substances A pure substance, or substance, is a type of matter with a fixed composition A substance can either be an element or a compound ex. Helium, Water, Salt

3 Elements All substances are built from atoms
If all atoms in a substance have the same identity, the substance is an element Ex. Copper, gold, silver All of the elements are found on the Periodic Table

4 Compounds Two or more elements can combine to form a compound
A compound is a substance in which the atoms of two or more elements are combined in a fixed proportion Ex. Table Salt - Compounds have properties different from the elements that compose them - Definite Ratio - Can only be decomposed into elements by chemical rxns. (can’t physically separate them)

5 Mixtures A mixture is a material made up of two or more substances that can be easily separated by physical means Components retain their own identifying properties No definite composition Can be separated by dissolving, filtering, evaporating, magnetics, screening, etc. Mixtures can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous

6 Heterogeneous mixtures
A heterogeneous mixture is a mixture where different materials can be distinguished easily Some are easily seen while others are not Ex. Pizza

7 Homogeneous Mixtures A homogeneous mixture contains two or more gaseous, liquid, or solid substances blended evenly throughout Components can’t be seen with the naked eye Ex. Soft Drink in a bottle – contains water, sugar, flavoring, coloring, CO2 gas

8 Solutions Solution - A homogeneous mixture in which the components are close to the size of individual particles of the substance and are too tiny to be seen with a microscope and will never settle to the bottom of a container Solutions remain constantly and uniformly mixed


10 Mixtures can occur between and among all phases of matter
Gas/gas (air) Gas/liquid (oxygen in water) Liquid/liquid (alcohol in water) Liquid/solid – (sugar in water) Solid/solid – (alloy such as steel) Ex. The addition of 10-30% chromium creates stainless steel

11 Physical Properties A physical property of a substance is any characteristic of a material that you can observe without changing the identity of the substances that make up the material Physical properties can be observed directly of measured with a tool Examples of physical properties include boiling point, color, shape, size

12 Boiling/Freezing/Melting Points
Boiling/Melting/Freezing points refer not to the phase change itself, but to a measurement: the temperature at which these changes occur Physical properties because the composition of a substance doesn’t change during phase change or when one measures temperature to determine these points

13 Density Density is the mass of a substance per unit volume
The density of a particular substance (under constant conditions) is always the same, regardless of sample size The composition of a substance doesn’t change when one measures mass and volume to find density -> physical property Density = mass volume

14 Solubility Solubility – the maximum amount of a solute (substance being dissolved) that can dissolve in a given volume of solvent (the dissolving medium) at a particular temperature and pressure The components of solutions do not chemically combine to form a new substance, therefore solutions are composed of two substances which each retain their own properties -> physical property

15 Viscosity Viscosity is a measure of a material’s resistance to flow
High viscosity fluids take longer to pour than low-viscosity fluids The composition of a fluid doesn’t change when it is poured -> physical property

16 Electrical Conductivity
A solid is either an electrical conductor or insulator based on its ability to complete an electric circuit

17 Physical Changes Review
Any observations/measurement made WITHOUT changing the composition of the matter Color Texture Density Odor Solubility Melting/boiling point (Any Phase Change)

18 Physical Change A change in size, shape, state
Identity of the element/compound does not change Change in Shape/Size Aluminum Foil cut in half Chewing your food Change in State Rubbing alcohol evaporates in your hand Juice box freezes in freezer

19 Signs of a Physical Change
Any phase change Change in energy of the particles What you started off with is what you end up with chemically

20 Chemical Properties A chemical property is a characteristic of a substance that indicates whether it can undergo a change that will alter the composition of the substance A change of one substance to another Ex. The capacity to oxidize The capacity to corrode Combustibility

21 Chemical Changes Substance(s) present at the beginning of the reaction are changed into something new. You BREAK or MAKE bonds!! The change can’t be undone

22 Examples Gasoline is ignited/burns Car rusts Milk goes sour
Bread -> toast Food digesting in your stomach and small intestine

23 Signs of Chemical Change
Bubbles appear Something is burning A precipitate forms (solid appears) Color Change Temperature changes Smell

24 The Capacity to Oxidize
A substance combines with oxygen to form a new substance with new properties The new substance formed is a combination of the atoms of the original substance and oxygen Properties of a substance change during the process of oxidation

25 Combustibility Combustion is a special type of oxidation
When combustion occurs, a substance combines with oxygen to form a new substance with new properties in a process that releases heat and light

26 The Capacity to Corrode
Corrosion – the process by which metals naturally combine with oxygen, sulfur, or other nonmetals When corrosion occurs, the new substance that is formed is a combination of a metal and a nonmetal The properties of a substance change during this process

27 Conservation of Mass The mass of all substances present before a chemical change equals the mass of all the substances that remain after the change (this will be more important later) Ex. A burning log, even though ashes are left and weigh less, if you could collect all the gases lost during the burning and measure their masses too, mass would be conserved

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