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America & World War II 1941 – 1945 Chapter 25.

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Presentation on theme: "America & World War II 1941 – 1945 Chapter 25."— Presentation transcript:

1 America & World War II 1941 – 1945 Chapter 25

2 Mobilizing for War A. Converting the Economy 1. Converting to military economy began before war 2. Moved away from bidding on gov’t contracts 3. Cost Plus: gov’t agreed to pay cost plus a guaranteed… 4. Reconstruction Finance Corp: gov’t agency help cover… B. American Industry 1. Auto industry shift from cars to tanks, planes… 2. Liberty Ships: basic cargo ship, welded not riveted… 3. War Production Board: set priorities and production… 4. Office of War Mobilization: settle arguments between… C. Creating an Army 1. Selective Service and Training Act: first peacetime draft 2. Drafted beyond ability to train and process 3. Double “V” Campaign: Hitler’s racism & US racism 4. FDR responds by promoting Benjamin O. Davis to …

3 a. Training officer Benjamin O. Davis, Jr.
5. Tuskegee Airmen: all black fighter pilots trained in AL a. Training officer Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. b. Delay 2yrs before being sent into combat c. 99th Pursuit Squadron in Italy 6. Women in the War a. Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps beginning b. Women’s Army Corps replaced c. Goal to free up men for combat d. All branches followed after army success

4 Early Battles A. Japanese Front 1. Fall of the Philippines a. Attacked hours after Pearl Harbor b. Gen. Douglas MacArthur commander retreats c. Hold out 3 months lack of supplies, disease… d. MacArthur evacuated to Australia-moral, propag e. 78,000 prisoners of war captured by Japanese f. Bataan Death March: 65 mile march to prison… g. Corregidor last holdout 3 more months

5 2. Doolittle Raid a. Led by Colonel James Doolittle b. Moral booster after Pearl Harbor disaster c. 16 B-25 Mitchell bomber from carrier Hornet d. April 18, 1942 bombs fell on Tokyo e. Little damage physically – lots emotionally

6 3. Changes for Japanese a. Doolittle raid convinced changes required b. Navy officers gain power c. Japanese need to destroy balance of US carriers d. Admiral Yamamoto’s plans adopted 4. Battle of Coral Sea a. Japanese plans to capture New Guinea to cut… b. US broke Japanese code aware of plan c. US send Lexington & Yorktown carriers to… d. Lexington sunk/Yorktown damaged – US victory 5. Battle of Midway a. Japanese plans to attack US at Midway Island b. Broken code allowed US to be ready c. Two waves of Japanese attacks turned back d. Japanese lose 4 carriers – heart of their fleet e. Viewed as turning point of war in Pacific f. Two more years of hard fighting but Japanese…

7 B. Focus on German Army 1. Demands by Stalin that US & GB open 2nd front 2. FDR supported but Churchill opposed 3. Churchill want to fight Germans on the periphery (edge) 4. North Africa: first place the US sent troops a. Morocco and Algeria: French territory under… b. Allowed US troops to get experience c. Defeat for Germans and Italians d. Led to invasion of Italy e. Allowed US to support GB fighting in Egypt f. Egypt important b/c Suez Canal g. Germ. led by Gen. Erwin Rommel (Desert Fox) h. US forces led by Gen. George S. Patton i. Quick victories by Patton led to promotion j. Patton took control after Kassirine Pass loss k. Allied victory in North Africa

8 5. Battle of the Atlantic a. German submarines easy victory along east coast b. Glow of city lights on coast marked ships c. US finally began blackouts d. US finally adopted convoy system-packs with… e. US industry began producing more ships than… f. New technology finally gave US ships and … 6. Stalingrad a. Spring 1942 things good for Hitler-Rommel… b. Invasion of Russia to knock them out of war c. Plan to destroy Russian economy d. Capture strategic oil fields, industries in south e. Key city Stalingrad on Volga River and RR head f. Germans forbidden to retreat g. 91,000 surrounded and captured by Russian… h. 5,000 survive Russian prison camp i. Turning point of war for Germany

9 Life at Home A. Women and Minorities Gain 1. “Rosie the Riveter” 2. Women work in defense plants 3. A. Philip Randolph: head of Brotherhood… a. Threaten march on Washington DC b. Demand defense work for blacks c. Executive Order 8802: non-discrimination d. Fair Employment Practices Commission 4. Bracero Program: Spanish worker program a. US government program b. Bring Mexican farm worker to US

10 B. Nation on the Move 1. Sunbelt: deep south and California 2. Housing shortage at defense plants 3. Great Migration: blacks leaving south for defense jobs a. Blacks met with intolerance in north and west b. Race riots in Detroit 4. Zoot Suit: baggy, pleated pants… a. Americans to save fabric for war wore Victory… b. Mexican immigrants wore zoot suits c. Race riots in California between Am and Mex

11 5. Internment Camps a. FDR give authority to declare any part of US… b. All of west coast declared war zone c. All of Japanese descent moved to internment area d. No Japanese ever tried for espionage or … e. All possessions, homes, business confiscated w/o f. Moved to isolation in Colorado, Kansas… g. Korematsu v. the United States: Supreme Court… h Regimental Combat Team: most highly… i. Japanese American Citizens League: failed j. Ronald Reagan & $20,000 to any survivor

12 C. Daily Life 1. Office of Price Administration: wage/price controls 2. Rationing: limiting the availability of many products a. Food stuffs such as meat and sugar b. Gasoline and rubber c. Speed limit set at 35 mph d. Red and Blue coupon books=ration coupons 3. Victory gardens-grow own produce 4. Scrap drives for rubber, tin, aluminum and steel 5. Oil and fat collection stations – bacon drippings = extra 6. E Bonds: aka war bonds $ $ years 7. Federal gov’t raised taxes

13 Advancing the Battle A. Target the Nazi 1. Casablanca Conference: meeting FDR & Churchill… a. Strategic Bombing: night/US 8th day b. Ramp up tonnage c. Oil storage destroyed but not morale 2. Invasion of Italy a. Sicily 1st target b. Montgomery UK in charge c. Patton US smashes German line d. DUKW: new US amphibious truck success e. Italy surrenders oust Mussolini f. Hitler says no-take N Italy-Mussolini back in g. US Salerno on mainland h. US Anzio behind Germ line attack… i. After 5 months US capture Rome-Germ out

14 3. Big Three Meet at Tehran Iran
a. Russia agree to open 2nd front against Germ b. FDR agree to split Germ w/Russia after war c. FDR agree to give Baltic States to Russia d. FDR agree to give Poland to Russia**** e. FDR agree to give Chec to Russia f. FDR believe Stalin best friend and nice man B. Invasion of Europe 1. Operation Overlord: code name for planned invasion… a. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower b. Invasion planned for Normandy c. Use subterfuge to convince invasion Pas-de-Calais d. D-Day 2. Longest Day (Utah, Omaha, Gold, Sword & Juno) 3. Aided by sinking of Bismarck before US entry

15 Battle C. Pushing the Japanese 1. Island-Hopping Campaign: plan for Pacific taking… a. Low some atolls b. Amphtrac: amphibious tractor solve part … c. Marshall Islands then move to Mariana Islands d. B-29 bomber reach Japan from Mariana Islands 2. MacArthur returns 3. Battle of Leyte Gulf a. Largest naval battle in history b. Kamikaze: divine wind – crash planes into US… c. More psychological than destruction but… d. Complete US victory

16 End of War A. Third Reich Collapses 1. US knew of holocaust atrocities 2. Best way to stop was destroy Nazi regime 3. Need breakout from Normandy a. Hedgerows: dirt walls several feet thick covered… b. Bombers destroy – tanks pass through 4. Battle of the Bulge a. Last desperate offensive by Hitler b. Key city Bostogne – Gen Anthony McAuliffe c. Patton leads US troops to victory 5. V-E Day a. Victory in Europe Day b. Russians drive Germ out close in on Berlin c. Hitler commit suicide d. Admiral Karl Doenitz attempt to surrender e. May 8, 1945 unconditional surrender of Germany

17 B. Defeat of Japan 1. FDR dies Harry S. Truman President B-29 bomb Tokyo – 1st since Doolittle 3. US need islands closer to Japan 4. Iwo Jima cut distance half a. 60,000 Marines (6,800 KIA) b. Bloodiest fighting c. Mount Suribachi 5. Gen. Curtis LeMay command of B-29s a. Napalm: Jellied gasoline b. Start fires burn wood/paper houses c. Suck up all oxygen – asphyxiation 6. Invasion of Okinawa a miles from Japan b. Japanese dug in in mtns. (12,000 US KIA) 7. Japanese agree to surrender if emperor allowed to …

18 8. Manhattan Project: Am. Program to build atomic bomb
a. Leo Srilard & Albert Einstein Germ possible b. J Robert Oppenheimer lead team Los Alamos NM 9. Hiroshima: industrial city in Japan a. Decision not unanimous b. Enola Gay – Paul Tibbets – Little Boy c. 76,000 bldgs. 80/120,000 people immediately d. Russia declare war on Japan – FDR promised… 10. Nagasaki: communication/business center a. Bocks Car – Fat Man b. 35/74,000 people immediately 11. V-J Day a. Victory over Japan Day b. August 15, 1945

19 Enola Gay Returns A-Bomb “Little Boy” Bomb Explosion A-Bomb “Fat Man” Hiroshima Nagasaki BocksCar Crew

20 C. New World 1. United Nations a. Prevent wars b. General Assembly: member nations w/1 vote c. Security Council: 11 members/5 permanent… d. Charter: constitution defining responsibilities 2. War Trials a. International Military Tribunal created by Allies b. Nuremberg Trials: tried German leader for … c. Execution – prison – freedom (2) d. Tokyo IMT trials as well

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