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Presentation on theme: "BROTHER vs BROTHER CONFLICT"— Presentation transcript:

Names A. The American Civil War [1861 – 1865] 1. Technically incorrect term 2. Means fighting for control of a nation’s gov’t 3. South did not want control of US B. The War Between the States 1. Technically incorrect term 2. Implies indv states fighting each other C. The War of Northern Aggression [mostly true] D. The War for Southern Independence 1. Most technically accurate 2. South wanted free of Union 3. Desire to establish own nation

2 Secession Revisited A. Tenth Amendment of U.S. Constitution B. Virginia, New York & Rhode Island 1. Only ratified constitution b/c clause w/right to secede 2. Would only happen if gov’t became oppressive 3. Equal protection extended to all states C. Federalist No. 81 (Hamilton) Major Underlying Causes A. Political Imbalance 1. S lost balance w/CA and KS as free states 2. S feared abuses of power fm N controlled Congress 3. S feared a Republican President 4. S feared North’s view of union B. Economic Differences 1. Economic basis 2. Tariff question 3. Investment in slaves

3 C. Differences in interpretation of the Constitution
1. S believed secession legal 2. Debate over where power should reside D. Abolitionist Crusade 1. Changed yrs of political and economic issue 2. Became moral and emotional issue 3. Refusal to compromise Efforts to restore the Union A. Good possibility to avoid war B. Senator John Crittenden of Kentucky 1. Proposed compromise 2. Restore the MO Compromise border of 36-30 3. Apply to all present and future territories 4. Amend Constitution guarantee the right to own slaves C. Republicans after victory not interested in compromise D. Refused other offers at negotiated peace

4 Fort Sumter, SC A. Game of chicken b/t Davis and Lincoln (Lincoln broke word) B. April 12, 1861 C. Union not allowed to deliver supplies to fort D. SC military forces fire on Union forces inside fort E. Two days later Union forces surrender/0 casualties sort of F. Union forces allowed to leave with personal belongings G. Lincoln claims a rebellion [rebel] H. Viewed as beginning of The War Battle Lines A. B/C of Ft Sumter Lincoln issues call for 75,000 volunteers B. Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland [slave states] remain in union C. B/C of Lincoln’s desire to use force VA, NC, AR, TN leave

5 Confederate States of America

6 Pockets of Resistance A. Winston County, AL 1. Poorest & least tied to slave economy of south AL 2. Residents did not serve in the Confed Army 3. Many supported Union and joined Union Army 4. Worked as spies for Union Army 5. Meeting at Looney’s Tavern in Houston to declare neutrality 6. “Free State of Winston” B. Western Counties of Virginia 1. Appalachian Mtns divide VA culturally and geographically 2. West side of mtns felt tied to union and not plantation culture 3. Split and became state of West Virginia in 1863 [free]

7 Union’s Strategy A. One goal: compel the Southern states to rejoin the Union B. Means 1. Invade the South 2. Destroy the south’s ability to wage war 3. Lower morale of the south so would no longer fight C. Fight a war of attrition b/c larger population million vs 8 million white population 2. More weapons and ability to make more D. Anaconda Plan [war plan] [Scott and/or McClellan idea] 1. Use naval blockade around Southern coast 2. Seize control of Miss R and divide E/W Confed 3. Troops close in tighter and tighter like anaconda 4. Crush the fighting spirit of South E. Blockade Runners 1. Small, fast vessels used by South 2. Used to smuggle goods past blockade 3. Effective but too few

8 Union War Plan Map – The Anaconda Plan

9 Confederacy’s Strategy
A. One goal: force Union to recognize right of S to secede B. Means: 1. Fight a defensive war to own advantage 2. Prolong war until the N tired of fighting ask for peace 3. Convince Euro nations to support the S a. Cotton exports key b. Vital to British and French economy 4. Battle occur over terrain and climate familiar 5. S had better educated and more competent generals Government Troubles A. North 1. Conscription: draft or forcing to serve in military a. Rich could pay someone to take place legally [$300] b. Immigrants forced into service for 2+ as requirement for US citizenship 2. Riots over draft and length of war in OH, IN, PA, WI, NY

10 3. NYC attempts to secede from Union as independent
a. Irish immigrants large percent of inductions b. Riots pit Irish cops v Irish draftees c. Lots of southern sentiment d. Catholic bishop oppose Euro support of S 4. RI secede b/c failure to negotiate 5. 6th MA attacked in Baltimore a. 12 civilians killed/4 soldiers killed/17 wounded b. RRs, bridges, telegraph lines destroyed 6. Lincoln suspends writs of habeas corpus (14,000 arrested) 7. Lincoln declares martial law in MD 8. Trent Affair a. US ship stops British ship at sea b. Arrest 2 Confed diplomats c. Almost cause GB to go to war with US d. N thinks US ship captain hero 9. Copperheads: Demo who oppose the war 10. Greenbacks: paper money used as legal tender 11. Inflation rate of 80%

11 B. South 1. Strong states-rights = weak ctl gov’t 2. No national treasury a. Lack of money from taxes or bonds b. Difficult to finance war 3. Conscription brings resistance 4. Lack of gold reserve means paper money based on trust 5. Inflation rate grows to 9000%

12 Real Fighting A. First Battle of Bull Run [July 21, 1861] 1. aka First Manassas 2. Confed use rail junctions or cross roads/Union use natural landmarks to id battle sights 3. 25/30 miles south of WDC B. Union forces not ready to fight – pressured by Lincoln C. Confed forces not ready to fight either D. Gen Irwin McDowell led Union forces south to attack Confed E. Gen P.G.T. Beauregard command Southern forces F. Large crowd Congressmen w/ladies and picnic lunches come to watch the whipping of the South G. Early Union success turns into Confed victory 1. Gen Thomas J. Jackson arrives w/reinforcements 2. “There stands Jackson like a stonewall!” H. Humiliating defeat for the North 1. Unorganized retreat back to WDC 2. Gear, supplies abandoned

13 I. Could easily have led to a Confed invasion of WDC
J. Caused Lincoln to increase call for army of 500,000 not 75,000 K. Both sides change opinion of war 1. Both thought be over quickly and decisively [90 days] 2. Both now see a long and hard fought war L. Six minor attacks by Union forces prior to First Manassas

14 M. Crittenden-Johnson Resolution [July 1861]
1. Declared war for reunion of states 2. Not interfere w/institutions of South [slavery] 3. Many in N opposed to cause of abolition 4. Came to mean little a. Two weeks b. Lincoln sign confiscation act c. Seize all property of rebellious citizens d. Slaves defined as property in act 5. Reunification still remained focus for another 1 ½ years N. Corwin Amendment [March 1861] 1. No amendment ever to abolish slavery 2. Supported by Lincoln

15 Life Goes On A. South 1. Food shortages a. Cotton fields converted to food crops but no trans b. Union occupation of some areas 2. Morale down 3. Riots in some locations by women seeking food/supplies B. North 1. Boon to economy a. Growing industries to supply troops b. Mechanization of farming required fewer workers 2. Women assumed many jobs just as in South C. Homestead Act [1862] 1. Designed to settle west 2. Agree to cultivate 160 acres/5yrs/rec title free

16 D. Morrill Land Grant Act [1862]
1. Allotted each state thousands of acres of land 2. Amount based on number of senators and representatives 3. Required to use land to fund at least one public university 4. Money generated formed foundation for public univ system E. Emancipation Proclamation 1. Written Sept 1862 but not take effect until Jan 1, 1863 2. Time lag to allow to rescind if border states attempt to leave 3. Freed slaves in states in rebellion only 4. Maintained slavery in border states and WDC (800,000) 5. Gave war a moral focus/a shift from restore union 6. Undermined slave labor force supporting Confederacy 7. Cost South support of England and France 8. “did not mean much…” A. Lincoln


18 F. Gettysburg Address [Nov. 1863]
1. Lincoln speech to dedicate military cemetery 2. One of best known orations in Am history 3. Political speech not fact a. “…new birth of freedom…gov’t of the people…” b. Opposite was true due to waging bloody war c. Ignored calls for negotiated peace d. “Rebels” intent on self government 4. Primary speaker Edward Everett [2 hours]

19 G. Fighting Food 1. Northern troops: hardtack [wheat flour biscuit], potatoes, beans, what could take or steal 2. Southern troops: cornbread, wild game, what could buy or was donated, no coffee H. Andersonville Prison 1. Conf prisoner of war camp SW GA 2. Most famous 3. Hard conditions/100 day die 4. Making best of bad situation 5. Commander Henry Wirtz only person executed for war crimes I. Camp Douglass 1. Union prisoner of war camp Chicago 2. Death rate nearly equal to Andersonville 3. Refusal to issue blankets in winter [many froze to death] 4. Food rations sold on black market 5. Commander promoted for efficiency

20 Decisive Battles A. First Battle of Manassas B. Battle of Shiloh [April 6-7, 1862] 1. Western TN 2. Bloodiest of the WfSI 3. Total casualties for both sides over 20,000 [U13/C10] 4. Ended w/o clear winner

21 C. Antietam [Sept 17, 1862] [aka Battle of Sharpsburg]
1. REL planned invasion of the North 2. Antietam Creek MD 3. So battle plans wrapped around cigar fell into hands of No 4. Confed forces met larger Union army than anticipated 5. Bloodiest one day battle in history of US 6. 23,000 killed or wounded D. Vicksburg [May 15-July 4, 1863] 1. Followed Union forces under Farragut taking New Orleans 2. Moved north up Miss R to gain total control 3. Vicksburg MS well guarded by Confed 4. Last major obstacle to Union control of MS R 5. Sherman advised retreat – Grant refused 6. Ordered siege of Confed commanded by Pemberton 7. Siege lasted over two months 8. City residence forced to live in caves, eat rats, dogs, mules 9. Grant finally victorious 10. Cut So into east/west, cut supply lines

22 E. Fredericksburg & Chancellorsville [12/13/62-5/2/63]
1. Heavy losses by Union troops to smaller REL army 2. Burnside replaced by Hooker 3. REL attack Hooker Battle of Wilderness-No retreat F. Gettysburg [July 1-3, 1863] 1. REL army following Union north into PA 2. Union forces repeatedly defeat Confed charges 3. Pickett’s Charge across open ground Cemetery Ridge 4. Heavy losses Confed could not afford 5. Turning point b/c Confed no longer able to invade G. Chickamauga [Sept 19, 1863] 1. Chickamauga Creek north GA 2. Confed push Union back north to Chattanooga 3. Heavy losses for Union in surprise defeat H. Chattanooga [Nov 23-25, 1863] 1. Grant, Sherman, Hooker combine to attack Lookout 2. Superior numbers & equipment force Confed east to Missionary Ridge

23 3. Place TN in hands of Union
4. Loss of major rail center 5. Cut railway supplies to Atlanta I. Kennesaw Mountain [June 27, 1864] 1. Johnston forces defend Kennesaw Mtn GA against Sherman 2. Heavy Union losses 3. Failed to take mountain must bypass J. Mobile Bay [Aug 5, 1864] 1. Farragut attack/capture Fort Gaines and Morgan 2. Used 4 armored and 14 wooden vessels 3. For several months Union occupy forts cutting supply route 4. City remains in Confed control until after Lee surrenders K. Atlanta [Sept 2,1864] 1. Union advance slowly despite loss at Kennesaw Mtn 2. Final railway terminal for the South 3. Sherman burns Atlanta to the ground 4. Destroying ability of South to supply war effort

24 L. Sherman’s March to the Sea [May – Dec 1864]
1. Handpicked 60,000 to destroy everything in 60 mile wide 2. Route from Chattanooga to Atlanta to Savannah then north 3. Destroy RR, farms to prevent helping army (total war) 4. Soldiers given permission to loot, rape, murder civilians 5. Burn homes and towns, destroy crops, kill livestock 6. At Savannah turn north to meet Grant in VA 7. Continued destruction through Carolinas (Pony) 8. Burned entire town of Columbia SC 9. Broke spirit of South creating bitterness and tension that still exist today [effects of “total war”] [same used by others] M. Appomattox Courthouse 1. April 9, 1865 2. Followed Lee’s defeat of Grant at Cold Harbor and Wilderness campaign, siege of Petersburg 3. Lee outnumber 2 to 1 no replacements surrenders 4. Grant offers generous terms of surrender 5. End of Civil War though fighting continues for month

25 Numbers Game [for informational purposes only]
North South 24,000,000 total population 8,000,000 4,070,000 white males age ,140,000 2,900,000 served in military 1,200,000 1,500,000 enlisted for 3 years 800,000 1,400,000 conscripted (immigrants) 400,000 630,000 casualties [22%] 340,000 [28%] 360,000 killed in action [12%][9%] 250,000 [21%][22%] 186,000 blacks in Army [near end] 30,000 [throughout war] Less $ - segregated Same $ - together 110,000 mfg establishments 18,000 1,300,000 mfg workers 110,000 22,000 miles railroad 9,000 The war cost approximately $7 billion, roughly twice what it would have cost to buy the freedom of every Southern slave at market value.

26 Cost of War A. More US soldiers die than all other wars combined ,000 men killed 2. Over half die of disease not gunfire B. North 1. Federal budget grew $63 million to $1.3 billion 2. Record levels of industrial production 3. International immigration increased in urban areas 4. Three new states joined Union, KS, WV, NV 5. Union restored 6. Power of federal government increased over states ,000 Union soldiers lost their lives 8. Return of 800,000 soldiers to work forces 9. Slower demand/more workers led to recession C. South 1. Lost fight for independence 2. Lost slave-based economy ,000 Confederate soldiers lost their lives

27 4. South devastated, RR, factories, destroyed, banks close
5. Farms/plantations destroyed slaves emancipated 6. Agricultural economy destroyed 7. Over 2/3 of southern wealth destroyed 8. People feared retaliation from North and former slaves Why the South Lost A. Outnumbered more than 3 to 1 B. European allies did not show up C. South lagged behind in transportation and industrialization D. States rights issue made So states unwilling to give Confed gov’t powers needed to wage a successful war Lincoln A. Election of 1864 1. Seeks reelection 2. Democrats nominate Gen. George B. McClellan a. Stop hostilities, open negotiations with South

28 3. Capture of Atlanta gives Lincoln boost who trailed at time
4. Lincoln wins election a. Saw reelection as mandate to end slavery b. Thirteenth Amendment passes House sent to states B. Assassinated 1. Shot by John Wilkes Booth 2. Ford’s Theater – Our American Cousin 3. Shot April 14, 1865, dies one day later 4. Invites question as to what might have happened


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