Presentation on theme: "Introduction to The al-Qur’an"— Presentation transcript:
1 Introduction to The al-Qur’an ( The Main Sources Of Islam )Madah Ta’limAgus Syihabudin
2 BeliefTrue piety is this: to believe in God, and the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the Prophets, to give of one’s substance, however cherished, to kinsmen, and orphans, the needy, the traveler, beggars, and to ransom the slave, to perform the prayer, to pay the alms.(Surat al-Baqara, 177)
3 Linguistic MeaningQuran root word is QARA’A meaning read or recite. Hence, Quran means “the reading” or the “recitation”And (it is) a Quran which We have divided (into parts), in order that you might recite it to men at intervals 17:106
4 Islamic MeaningThe Quran is the Arabic Speech of Allah, which He revealed to Prophet Muhammad in wording and meaning, and has been preserved in the mushafs, and has reached us by mutawaatir transmission, and is a challenge to mankind to produce something similar to it.
5 Names of the Quran Quran (recitation) mentioned 73 times 17:88 Kitab (book) mentioned 77 times (2:1-2)Furqan (Criterion) 4 timesDhikr (Reminder) mentioned 55 timesTanzeel (Revelation) over 140 times
6 The Beginning of Revelation Proclaim! (or Read!)In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher, Who createdCreated man, out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood:Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful -He who taught (the use of) the penTaught man that which he knew not.(Surat al-‘Alaq, 1-5)
7 The unmediated word of God 114 chapters6207 verses77,934 words323,671 lettersrevealed over 22 years (22 y, 2 m and 22 d)Not arranged in the order in which it was revealedTraditionally thought to have been collected under ‘Uthman (d. 656), third caliphToday’s text based on the 1925 Egyptian edition
8 Compilation of the Quran 1st compilation by Abu Bakr in 12 AH after the Battle of Yamaamah2nd compilation by Uthman AH
10 Content of the al-Qur’an Main themes:Creed or matters of Belief (Aqeedah)Stories and HistoryLawsLegal material of the Quran is contained in about 500 Ayats
11 Meccan-Madinan Phases Larger part of the Quran was revealed in Mecca- mostly deal with beliefs, disputation with unbelievers and their invitation to IslamMadinan surahs deal with legal rules regarding family, society, politics, economics, etc.
12 Inimitability Of the Quran The Quran is considered the Greatest miraclesAnd if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down to Our slave, then produce a chapter of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allah, if you are truthful.Five verses: 2:23-24,10:38,11:13,17:8852:33-34
13 7 BUKTI KEMUKJIZATAN AL QUR’AN 1. Bahasa Arab yang indah dan menakjubkan2. Menceritakan sejarah dan menggambarakan prediksi kehidupan secara akurat3. Isyarat IPTEK yang sejalan dengan penemuan mutakhir4. Membawa ajaran kehidupan yang benar, adil dan menjamin kedamaian hidup5. Diturunkan kepada seorang Nabi yang Ummi6. Proses penurunan dalam skala waktu lama yang menjamin mudah terdeteksinya kepalsuan jika ia bikinan manusia7. Mendapatkan garansi pemeliharaan Allah SWT
14 QURAN & SCIENCEHUMAN EMBRYO, FLIES, ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE, EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE, ON IRON, SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SKIN, ON BOTANY, THE CONSTITUENTS AND PRODUCE OF MILK, ABOUT THE CLOUDS, THE RIVERS, THE FUNCTION OF THE FOREPART OF THE HEADSee &
15 PERBEDAAN QUR’AN DAN QANUN Suatu hukum mewarisi karakteristik pembuatnya- Karakter manusia itu lemah (tidak sempurna)- Klaim kekelanan Qanun bertentangan denganfitrah si pembuatnya2. Suatu hukum dibuat berdasarkan kebutuhan- Kebutuhan manusia bersifat dinamis (berubah)- Qanun harus berubah seiring dengan dinamika3. Suatu hukum dibuat untuk mengatur hidup supaya tertib- Kalau hidup sudah tertib, tidak perlu hukum
16 ASAS PEMBENTUKAN HUKUM 1. TAQLIL AL TAKALIF (QS. 7:157)2. ‘ADAM AL HARJ- Menggugurkan suatu kewajiban- Mengurangkan- Mendahulukan- Membelakangkan- Mengganti- Mengubah Cara‘- Rukhshah3. AL TADARRUJ FI AL TASYRI;
17 A Gradual Revelation Wisdom behind gradual revelation 1. To strengthen resolve 25:322. To simplify memorization and understanding3.) To prove the truthfulness of the Prophet 25:334.) To prove the miraculous nature of the Quran 4:825.) To reveal the laws of Islam
18 Preservation of the Quran إِنَّا نَحۡنُ نَزَّلۡنَا ٱلذِّكۡرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ ۥ لَحَـٰفِظُونَ“Verily, We have revealed the Reminder, and verily We shall preserve it.” (15:9)
19 Why wasn’t it compiled during the life of the Prophet? Compilation of QuranWhy wasn’t it compiled during the life of the Prophet?The Quran was written down in totality but the Prophet didn’t order that it be compiled between two coversNo pressing needQuran continued to be revealed…last verse nine days before deathQuran not in chronological order
20 Memorization of QuranAnd We have indeed made the Quran easy to understand and remember, then is there any one who will remember (or receive admonition)? (54:17)“It will be said to the companion of the Quran: Recite and rise in status, recite as you used to recite in the world, for your status will be at the last verse that you recite.” (Abu Dawood)
21 Memorization of QuranThe Prophet said: “Learn the Quran, preserve it, and recite it in a beautiful, musical manner, because it is swifter in escaping (from your memory) than the camels are from their hobbles. [Musnad Ahmad]
22 (Occasion of Revelation) Sciences of the QuranAsbab al-Nuzul(Occasion of Revelation)Asbab al-Nuzul or events which are related to revelation of the AyatsHukm (law) is not limited to the events or circumstances.Asbab al-Nuzul helps to understand the Quran and its law.
23 Benefit of Knowing Occasion of Revelation Sciences of the quranBenefit of Knowing Occasion of RevelationTo understand the circumstances in which a verse was revealedTo apply verses in a proper mannerTo know the person who caused the revelation
24 Sciences of the quranAbrogation (al Naskh) And when We change a Verse in place of another, and Allah knows best what He sends down, they (the disbelievers) say: "You are but a forger/ liar)." 16:101 Example: Ruling on Alcohol 2:219 (harmful), don’t pray drunk (4:43), prohibited (5:90)
25 Abrogation (al-Naskh) Sciences of the quranAbrogation (al-Naskh)Benefits of this knowledgeUnderstand and implement Quran properlyKnowledge of gradual revelation of shariahDefense of Quran and Sunnah
26 Sciences of the quran Recitation Tajweed: Science of the recitation of the QuranTen different recitation of the QuranYoung boyIndonesianAmericanKuwaitiSaudiEgyptian
27 Exegeses (al-Tafsir) Sciences of the quran “The process of understanding Qur’anic texts.”Tafsir bil ma’tsur – based on reports deriving from the Qur’an, the Prophet, the CompanionsTafsir bir ra’yi – based on ijtihad (reasoning)Hermeneutics discourse of contemporary exegetes: The Qur’an is not to be treated as a ‘dead’ text, but as a living text with spirit for transformation.
28 Virtue of the Quran“The best of you is he who learns the Quran and teaches it to others” (Bukhari)“I have certainly left among you two matters, that if you adhere to them, you will never be misguided: the book of Allah and the Sunnah of His prophet” (Malik)
29 Virtue of QuranAnd if there had been a Quran with which mountains could be moved (from their places), or the earth could be cloven asunder, or the dead could be made to speak (it would not have been other than this Quran). But the decision of all things is certainly with Allah. Have not then those who believed yet known that had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? 13:31
30 The neglect of the Quran Furqan: 30Avoiding listening to its recitation, beliving in it or paying attention to itAvoiding acting by and respecting what the Quran states as halal and HaramAvoiding accepting the Quran as an arbiterAvoiding pondering over itAvoiding using it as a cure for the diseases of the heart
31 Reaction to the Quran Embraced Islam Listening to it secretly themselvesClaimed it was magic (Story of Waleed p.269)
32 Basic human rights in Islam – Al Kulliyatul Khoms Normative Basis of Shariah: Maqashid Shariah (Overall Goal) – Imam ShatibyBasic human rights in Islam – Al Kulliyatul KhomsRight for protection of one’s faithRight for protection of one’s lifeRight for freedom of thoughtsRight for protection of one’s propertyRight for protection of progeny‘God loves to see that His concessions are taken advantage of, just as He hates to see the commission of a sin.’ (Hadith)‘Fulfill your duties to the extent of your ability.’ (Hadith)