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Tips on: Critical Evaluation, Critical writing skills & Examination Technique.

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1 Tips on: Critical Evaluation, Critical writing skills & Examination Technique

2 Margot Bowes – University of Auckland Michelle Selak- Diocesan Alison Schofield – Diocesan

3 Scholarship PE Ability to critically evaluate to show breadth of knowledge & depth of understanding Comprehensive knowledge of Bio physical principles and socio-cultural factors Practical Application Detailed examples of own experiences in, through & about movement (evidence).

4 Biophysical knowledge (types of practice; anatomy; biomechanics etc) Socio cultural knowledge (interpersonal skills – self, others, society; sociological issues (obesity, body image); lifestyle; SPEECH). Examples drawn from your own experience in and throughout movement. Examples Your own readings and research – quotes from a range of sources Critical Evaluation is the process of making informed and valid judgements or conclusions supported by comprehensive knowledge and evidence. Throughout the process we challenge assumptions and taken for granted points of view through reflecting and examining pros and cons, bias and different perspectives Successful Scholarship Students are critical thinkers

5 Connect the following series of dots with four straight lines without taking your pen off the paper… The solution requires you to think outside the boundaries of what you see…this is the essence of critical thinking. think outside the box

6 So we consider perspectives on an issue we may not normally. So we do not accept the norm, we challenge taken for granted ideas. our thinking becomes free from bias, prejudice and one-sidedness of thought

7 The 2010 Physical Education Scholarship exam will be on Tuesday 30 th November Candidates will be required to answer three questions from a choice of four questions during the three hour examination.

8 Planning, implementation and/or evaluation of physical activity programmes/experiences, drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90739 and 90740. Trends and/or issues impacting on New Zealand society, such as cotton wool kids, drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standard 90743. Programmes for performance improvement drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90741, 90742. Physical activity, health promotion and taking action drawing upon knowledge underpinning achievement standards 90739, 90740, 90743, 90744.

9 ability to critically evaluate the issue or topic by looking at both sides of the situation, to make judgments supported by subject knowledge, quotes/references and own experiences, to challenge assumptions, to make creative suggestions, and to reach a justified position ability to provide evidence of depth and breadth of subject knowledge ability to allocate their time effectively to provide three comprehensive answers ability to effectively use their own experiences and practical knowledge to support their answers ability to critically evaluate the scenarios, statements and positions that the questions involved ability to respond with depth and breadth of subject content knowledge; they were able to display evidence of wide reading and to use this to support their argument with references ability to structure an essay, provide a coherent argument and justify a position.

10 superficial use of critical thinking tools – e.g. using all parts of S.P.E.E.C.H. superficially a use of general knowledge from the public domain rather than evidence of academic subject knowledge inability to respond appropriately to the questions as stated; they used prepared answers to attempt to answer the questions a tendency to make assumptions - e.g. all working parents feed their children takeaways because both parents are working rather than suggesting that it might be a possible factor a lack of depth across three questions an inability to pace themselves for the three hours; they did not attempt all questions or did not complete the last essay a lack of breadth of knowledge across three essays a failure to reference quotes.

11 Term 2 - BreadthTerm 3 - DepthTerm 4 – Structure & time Read articles related to each spec and discuss with your school schol group. Prepare a PMIS with the notes Visit the team solutions wiki (http://peandhealth.wikispac Prepare sample essays for each of the specs… using quotes and examples Read through the exemplars on Attend PENZ meetings Practice tests – look at structure of essay and time ( – Scholarship – Resources)

12 Critical thinking/ evaluating Tools & Strategies Debonos Critical Thinking Hats (add bias after white) Compare And Contrast PMIS (Plus, Minus Issues, Suggestions) Reasonable/ Inspiration SPEECH Court room battles 3 Storey Intellect Model CAMPER Fact vs opinion chart 3 level Guide DATT tools

13 INTRO Positives Minuses Issues/ Bias Suggestions CONCLUSION INTRODUCTION Dont just reword the introductory paragraph – say something different! Use the information/ statistics given to you in the introductory paragraph. State in this paragraph what you know; what would you like to know and what is missing.

14 Presents the positive view points; i.e. what do you agree with in the statement put forward. Back up with quotes, research and your own experiences to show depth of understanding. (May include SPEECH influences, and use OPV).

15 Examines a negative view point. What do you disagree with in the statement? Looks at weaknesses and who is to benefit from such a statement. Points out errors of logic or show that the conclusion does not necessarily follow. When disagreeing with something start, I can think of another way of looking at it / alternative explanation or that may fit some peoples values, however….

16 ISSUES Examines any bias that may exist. Challenges validity of figures, backed up with quotes. CHALLENGE ASSUMPTIONs: Are there any blanket terms used in the paragraph or question? Start by defining these terms and challenging there use in the statement. Are extraploitations used at all i.e. statements that take a trend forward and assume the trend will continue. SUGGESTIONS What are some initiatives, new ideas, alternatives, you or others have about helping this issue move forward or be improved.

17 Begin… I am now going to conclude by reflecting on the major points I have discussed. …. Reach a valid judgment…. In my opinion after examining a range of points I…. If data is used in the question, use this data to back up your answer.

18 Make sure you are not just listing facts or ideas, that you link your ideas, data, interpretations into a coherent paragraph! (S) make a valid statement, or say in my opinion… (E) Explain what you mean by this statement (how and why). (DE) Give a detailed example backed up with evidence. (C )Conclude how this evidence relates to your statement. Use quotes, dont just regurgitate them. If using a direct quote follow with I would choose to take this quote literally…. Make sure you put course work knowledge into your answers where necessary. It is important that you are familiar with what you did this year!

19 Term 2 - Breadth When you came in you were given a coloured piece of paper. Get together with your group and read the article given to you. Fill in the sheet related to your particular view point. Red – Positives Blue – Minuses Green – Issues/ bias

20 A combination of fear of injury, an increasingly unsafe society and advancements in technology are seeing changes in the levels and types of physical activity that youth are participating in. Davison KK et al. (2008) found that rates of walking and bicycling to school, or active commuting, have declined precipitously during the past 30 years. Sport and Recreation New Zealand believe 'cotton wooling' of children by worried parents has gone too far. She is concerned parents now stop their children doing things like playing sport and riding their bikes. And she says over 50 per cent of car trips are to take kids to school, when they could really walk. Ms Hurdle says gone are the days when people would see falling off the jungle-gym at school as a learning experience. (New Zealand Herald,17 May 2008). Many industries are now undertaking the challenge using societies overarching fears and youths interest in technology to create safe physical activity. 2006, saw the introduction of a video game system called the Nintendo WiiIt became an instant hit, selling more than 11million consoles in America alone since its release (Anders, 2008).

21 Critically evaluate how New Zealand's changing society may or may not be creating a new generation of cotton wool kids. In your critical evaluation you could: Critically evaluate contributing factors which could influence or prevent physical activity in New Zealand society Critically evaluate what impact cotton wooling kids could have on themselves, others and New Zealand society Support your explanations with current trends in physical activity and your own experiences.

22 Anders M. (2008). As Good as the Real Thing? Fitness Matters. 14(4): p.7-9. New Zealand Herald (2008). Stop wrapping Kiwi kids in cotton wool. May 17, 2008

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