Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Chapter 50 Skin Disorders 1.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 50 Skin Disorders 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 50 Skin Disorders 1

2 Learning Objectives Describe the structure and functions of the skin.
List the components of the nursing assessment of the skin. Define terms used to describe the skin and skin lesions. Explain the tests and procedures used to diagnose skin disorders. Explain the nurse’s responsibilities regarding the tests and procedures for diagnosing skin disorders. Explain the therapeutic benefits and nursing considerations for patients who receive dressings, soaks and wet wraps, phototherapy, and drug therapy for skin problems. Describe the pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests, and medical treatment for selected skin disorders. Assist in developing a nursing care plan for the patient with a skin disorder.

3 Anatomy and Physiology of the Skin

4 Definition The skin is an organ that covers the body surface
Two distinct layers 4

5 Epidermis Outermost layer that covers the dermis
Continually produces new cells to replace those at the surface Produce melanin, a dark pigment, that helps determine the color of the skin Strong ultraviolet light, such as in sunlight, stimulates the production of melanin 5

6 Dermis Strong connective tissue that contains nerve endings, sweat glands, hair roots Well supplied with blood vessels, causing the skin to redden when surface vessels are dilated Subcutaneous tissue lies beneath the dermis 6

7 Figure 50-1 7

8 Appendages Hair, nails, and sebaceous glands
Hair root located in tube in dermis called a hair follicle Arrector muscles located around hair follicles contract, causing hairs to stand erect and gooseflesh skin Sebaceous glands secrete oily substance: sebum Sweat glands, in most parts of the skin, secrete through skin surface water that contains salts, ammonia, amino acids, lactic acid, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and urea 8

9 Functions Protection Temperature regulation Secretions Sensation
Synthesis of vitamin D Blood reservoir The skin performs its protective function by shielding underlying tissues from trauma and pathogens and by preventing excess loss of fluids from those tissues. The skin participates in temperature regulation by altering the diameter of surface blood vessels and through sweating. Sweat is one skin secretion; sebum is another. The skin is heavily endowed with sensory receptors for touch, pressure, pain, and temperature. Ultraviolet rays in sunlight activate a substance in the skin that eventually is converted into vitamin D. The skin contains an extensive blood vessel network that can store as much as 10% of the body’s total blood volume. How can the skin shunt blood to vital organs? 9

10 Age-Related Changes Wrinkling a result of thinning skin layers and degeneration of elastin fibers Sweat glands decrease, although production changes little until advanced age Production of sebum decreases, becoming apparent earlier in women than in men Dryness and pruritus are common Skin pales because the number of cells that produce melanin decreases Changes in the skin are probably the most readily recognized of all signs of physical aging. What occurs with the skin elasticity and strength? 10

11 Age-Related Changes Skin lesions are more common
Lentigines Senile purpura Senile angiomas Seborrheic keratoses Acrochordons By age 50, nearly half have some gray hair Men begin to lose hair from the scalp in their 40s; by their 80s many almost bald The risk of premalignant and malignant skin lesions also increases with age. 11

12 Age-Related Changes Scalp hair thins in women as well but usually less obvious Increase in facial hair in both sexes Men may have increased hair in the nares, eyebrows, or helix of the ear Nails flatten; become dry, brittle, and discolored 12

13 Figure 50-2 13

14 Health History Chief complaint and history of present illness
Discomfort, pruritus, color changes, lesions, hair loss, or abnormal hair growth Onset of condition/precipitating or alleviating factors Past medical history Previously diagnosed skin diseases or problems, current and recent medications, and allergies Diabetes mellitus, cancer, kidney failure, thyroid disease, liver disease, and anemia What information about the lesions may be helpful in the diagnostic process? 14

15 Health History Review of systems Functional assessment
Change in skin color or pigmentation, change in a mole, sores slow to heal, itching, dryness or scaliness, excessive bruising, rashes, lesions, hair loss, unusual hair growth, changes in nails Functional assessment Past and present occupations, exposure to chemicals or other irritants, skin care habits, sun exposure Recent changes in the work or living environment Current stresses and sources of anxiety Conditions of what systems may cause signs and symptoms of skin disorders? 15

16 Physical Assessment Skin color and variations in pigmentation
Document dilated blood vessels and angiomas Nevi (moles) inspected for irregularities in shape, pigmentation, and ulcerations or changes in surrounding skin If a rash, location, distribution, and characteristics. If any drainage, the color, amount, and odor are noted Nevi also are palpated for tenderness and measured in centimeters. What are some terms used to describe skin lesions? 16

17 Figure 50-3 17

18 Physical Assessment Palpate skin for temperature, moisture, texture, thickness, edema, mobility, and turgor Mobility and turgor Hair color, distribution, oiliness, and texture. The scalp is inspected for scaliness, infestations, and lesions Shape/contour of the fingernails and toenails Color of the nail bed Capillary refill checked by applying pressure to the nail to cause blanching and then releasing Some skin changes are less apparent in dark-skinned people than in light-skinned people. What color may be seen with cyanosis in a dark-skinned person? The angle of the nail base reveals clubbing of the nails. 18

19 Figure 50-4 19

20 Diagnostic Tests and Procedures
Microscopic examination of skin specimens Potassium hydroxide (KOH) examination Tzanck smear Scabies scraping Wood’s light examination Patch testing for allergy Biopsy Shave biopsy Punch biopsy Surgical excision 20

21 Therapeutic Measures Dressings Negative pressure wound therapy
Protect wounds; retain surface moisture Types: wet, dry, absorptive, and occlusive Negative pressure wound therapy Reduce healing time of traumatic wounds, dehisced surgical wounds, pressure and chronic ulcers Soaks and wet wraps Soothe, soften, and remove crusts, debris, and necrotic tissue Dry dressings protect wounds and absorb drainage. Wet dressings are used to decrease inflammation, soften crusts, and promote tissue granulation. Absorptive dressings are used to promote removal of excess exudate and are especially useful in wounds with necrotic tissue. Occlusive dressings protect wounds and maintain moisture to promote healing. How is negative pressure accomplished with negative pressure wound therapy? 21

22 Therapeutic Measures Phototherapy Drug therapy
Ultraviolet light in combination with photosensitive drugs promotes shedding of the epidermis Drug therapy Topical drugs: keratolytics, antipruritics, emollients, lubricants, sunscreens, tars, anti-infectives, glucocorticoids, antimetabolites, antihistamines, antiseborrheic agents, and vitamin A derivatives What are the types of ultraviolet light? Phototherapy may be used in the treatment of psoriasis, vitiligo, and chronic eczema. Phototherapy with a psoralen and ultraviolet A (PUVA) is a treatment that uses a combination of oral or topical 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A (long-wave ultraviolet light). 22

23 Disorders of the Skin 23

24 Pruritus Etiology and risk factors
Triggered by touch, temperature changes, emotional stress, and chemical, mechanical, and electrical stimuli Prominent symptom of psoriasis, dermatitis, eczema, insect bites What drugs may cause pruritus? 24

25 Pruritus Medical treatment
Stress management and avoidance of known irritants, sudden temperature changes, and alcohol, tea, and coffee Lubricants in the bathwater and emollients applied after bathing also may help Medications include corticosteroids, antihistamines, and local anesthetics 25

26 Pruritus Assessment Collect data about symptoms that may help determine the cause The history of the current illness is important because pruritus may be just one symptom of a condition that requires attention 26

27 Pruritus Interventions Lubricants/emollients; adding oils to bathwater
Advise to avoid bathing in very hot water Administer medications or instruct patient in their use Inspect skin daily to determine effects of treatment Explain possible causes of pruritus and encourage the patient to avoid them 27

28 Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
Pathophysiology Acute stage: red, oozing, crusty rash and intense pruritus Subacute stage: redness, excoriations, and scaling plaques or pustules. Fine scales may give skin a silvery appearance Chronic stage: the skin becomes dry, thickened, scaly, and brownish gray 28

29 Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
Etiology and risk factors Personal or family history of asthma, hay fever, eczema, or food allergies People with atopic dermatitis have an immune dysfunction, but it is not known whether that dysfunction is a cause or an effect of the disorder 29

30 Figure 50-6 30

31 Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
Medical diagnosis Health history and physical examination Skin biopsy, serum immunoglobulin E levels, and cultures; allergy tests Medical treatment Topical corticosteroids; systemic antihistamines If allergy is suspected as a cause of dermatitis, the physician may perform allergy tests to identify allergens. Soaks, occlusive dressings, and emollients help to keep the skin moist. In severe cases that do not respond to topical agents, what medication may be ordered? 31

32 Atopic Dermatitis (Eczema)
Assessment Allergies, bathing practices, and current medications Interventions Impaired Skin Integrity Risk for Infection Disturbed Body Image 32

33 Seborrheic Dermatitis
Pathophysiology Chronic inflammatory disease of the skin Affects scalp, eyebrows, eyelids, lips, ears, sternal area, axillae, umbilicus, groin, gluteal crease, and under the breasts Areas affected by this condition may have fine, powdery scales, thick crusts, or oily patches Scales may be white, yellowish, or reddish Pruritus is common What is seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp called? 33

34 Seborrheic Dermatitis
Etiology and risk factors The cause is unknown May be an inflammatory reaction to infection with the yeast Malassezia 34

35 Seborrheic Dermatitis
Medical diagnosis Health history and physical examination Medical treatment Topical ketoconazole (Nizoral), sometimes with topical corticosteroids Shampoos that contain selenium sulfide (Selsun), ketoconazole, tar, zinc pyrithionate, salicylic acid, or resorcin 35

36 Seborrheic Dermatitis
Assessment Inspect and describe the affected areas Interventions Explain the condition and reinforce the physician’s instructions for treatment What measures may relieve pruritus? 36

37 Psoriasis Pathophysiology Etiology and risk factors
Abnormal proliferation of skin cells Classic sign: bright red lesions that may be covered with silvery scales Etiology and risk factors Caused by rapid proliferation of epidermal cells Usually chronic with cycles of exacerbations and remissions When is the onset of psoriasis common? Psoriasis may affect a limited body area or may be extensive. Some people have systemic effects of the disease, such as psoriatic arthritis. Factors that aggravate psoriasis are stress, streptococcal infections, overuse of alcohol, and drugs such as lithium and beta blockers. 37

38 Psoriasis Medical diagnosis Medical treatment
Health history and physical examination Medical treatment No cure; usually treated with topical medications: corticosteroids, tazarotene, Estar (coal tar), and vitamin D derivatives Topical salicylic acid may be used with the corticosteroids. Tazarotene (Tazorac) is a topical retinoid that stays in the skin longer, leading to longer remissions. What is PUVA? UVB? Anthralin (Anthra-Derm) may be used to remove heavy scales. 38

39 Figure 50-7 39

40 Psoriasis Assessment Interventions Describe symptoms and treatments
Inspect affected areas for lesions and scales Document joint pain or stiffness because the condition may cause arthritis Interventions Ineffective Therapeutic Regimen Management Disturbed Body Image Social Isolation 40

41 Intertrigo Pathophysiology Etiology and risk factors
Inflammation where two skin surfaces touch: axillae, abdominal skinfolds, and under the breasts The affected area is usually red and “weeping” with clear margins; may be surrounded by vesicles and pustules Etiology and risk factors Results from heat, friction, and moisture between touching surfaces What infection may occur in the area of intertrigo? 41

42 Intertrigo Medical diagnosis and treatment
Based on site/appearance of inflamed skin If the skin not broken, wash with water twice daily; rinse and pat dry; soft gauze used to separate layer of tissue and absorb moisture For severe inflammation or fungal infection: topical corticosteroid or antifungal agent Why is cornstarch contraindicated? Wet soaks with tap water or Burow’s solution are sometimes ordered to remove exudate if an infection is present. 42

43 Intertrigo Assessment
Complaints of pain, irritation, or redness in body folds Inspect susceptible areas daily Intertrigo is fairly common among patients in long-term care facilities. What are common sites for intertrigo? 43

44 Intertrigo Interventions
Areas where skin surfaces are in contact must be kept clean and dry Apply topical medications as ordered Report increasing redness and tenderness, fever, and broken skin to the physician Encourage women with pendulous breasts to wear a soft, supportive bra If incontinence has contributed to perineal intertrigo, position patient with legs apart to allow moisture to evaporate 44

45 Fungal Infections Pathophysiology Tinea pedis (athlete’s foot)
Tinea manus (hand) Tinea cruris (groin) Tinea capitis (scalp) Tinea corporis (body) Tinea barbae (beard) Candidiasis: affects skin, mouth, vagina, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs The lay term ringworm is sometimes used to describe these circular lesions of tinea. Which types of tinea are commonly spread by sharing contaminated objects? Candidiasis, commonly called a yeast infection, is caused by C. albicans. Wet compresses and keratolytics may be ordered to soften scales with some tinea infections. For AIDS patients, clotrimazole is superior to nystatin. 45

46 Fungal Infections Etiology and risk factors Medical diagnosis
Spread through direct contact or by inanimate objects Lesions may be scaly patches with raised borders Pruritus common symptom Medical diagnosis Confirmed by microscopic examination of skin scrapings Medical treatment Fungal: treated with antifungal powders and creams Oral candidiasis: treated with clotrimazole troches, nystatin mouthwash or lozenges, oral amphotericin B 46

47 Figure 50-8 47

48 Fungal Infections Assessment Interventions
Conditions that might make a person susceptible to fungal infections Inspect the skin and mucous membranes for lesions Interventions Disturbed Body Image Altered Oral Mucous Membrane Risk for Injury 48

49 Acne Pathophysiology Etiology and risk factors Medical diagnosis
Affects the hair follicles and sebaceous glands Comedones (whiteheads, blackheads), pustules, cysts Often develop on the face, neck, and upper trunk Etiology and risk factors Androgenic hormones cause increased sebum production; bacteria proliferate, causing sebaceous follicles to become blocked and inflamed Medical diagnosis Health history and physical examination findings Acne commonly begins in adolescence and may last into adulthood. Can acne be caused by fatty foods, chocolate, or poor hygiene? Exacerbations of acne can be triggered by high levels of progestin in birth control pills, oil-based cosmetics, high doses of systemic corticosteroids, hormonal changes associated with the menstrual period, and some endocrine disorders. 49

50 Acne Medical treatment
Topical medications: antibiotics, keratolytics such as benzoyl peroxide, topical vitamin A preparations Oral antibiotics given over several months Nonpharmacologic treatment: comedo extraction or cryotherapy Dermabrasion to reduce scarring 50

51 Acne Assessment Interventions Document any treatments being used
Inspect skin to determine extent and severity Interventions Disturbed Body Image Ineffective Therapeutic Regimen Management

52 Herpes Simplex Etiology and risk factors Medical diagnosis
Viral infection begins with itching and burning and progresses to vesicles that rupture and form crusts Nose, lips, cheeks, ears, genitalia most often affected Oral lesions called cold sores or fever blisters Infections on the face and upper body usually caused by HSV-1; genital infections by HSV-2 Medical diagnosis Laboratory studies of exudate from a lesion and blood studies to detect specific antibodies Patients typically have repeated outbreaks and remissions. Herpes simplex virus can be transmitted by direct contact. How are genital lesions commonly spread? 52

53 Figure 50-9 53

54 Herpes Simplex Assessment Interventions
Describe the development of the herpetic lesions Sexual contacts documented so that they can be advised of the need for medical evaluation Inspect the lesions Interventions Acute Pain Ineffective Coping Ineffective Therapeutic Regimen Management 54

55 Herpes Zoster Etiology and risk factors Commonly called shingles
Varicella-zoster virus; also causes chickenpox Symptoms: pain, itching, and heightened sensitivity along a nerve pathway, followed by the formation of vesicles in the area When the skin is affected, crusts form Older adults especially susceptible to complications Immunosuppressed at greater risk for herpes zoster infections; may have serious systemic complications The lesions typically last approximately 2 weeks. What are the possible complications of herpes zoster? 55

56 Figure 50-10 56

57 Herpes Zoster Medical diagnosis Medical treatment
Health history and physical examination findings Tzanck smear or viral culture of material from a lesion Medical treatment Antiviral agents: acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet Wet dressings soaked in Burow’s solution Pain may be treated with analgesics and sedatives What route are antiviral agents administered to patients who have impaired immune system function? Postherpetic neuralgia is treated with a variety of analgesics, anticonvulsant drugs, and antidepressants. Other methods that may be tried to achieve pain relief are transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, nerve blocks, and acupuncture. 57

58 Herpes Zoster Assessment
Conditions or treatments that might cause the patient to have a reduced immune response Distribution and appearance of the lesions Interventions Impaired Skin Integrity Acute Pain Ineffective Coping 58

59 Necrotizing Fasciitis
Infection of deep fascial structures under the skin Aerobic and anaerobic organisms: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, and Clostridium species Organisms excrete enzymes that destroy blood vessels that supply the affected area Deprived of blood flow, tissue necrosis occurs Treatment involves extensive débridement, intravenous and topical antibiotics, and eventual skin grafting When should necrotizing fasciitis be suspected? The infection may progress rapidly with loss of large amounts of tissue and can result in death. 59

60 Infestations Lice Scabies 60

61 Figure 50-12 61

62 Pemphigus Chronic autoimmune condition: bullae (blisters) develop on the face, back, chest, groin, and umbilicus Blisters rupture easily, releasing a foul-smelling drainage Potassium permanganate baths, Domeboro solution, and oatmeal products soothe the affected areas, reduce odor, and decrease the risk of infection Treatments: corticosteroids, other immunosuppressants, and oral or topical antibiotics Patients with extensive skin loss require the same care as burn patients 62

63 Actinic Keratosis Precancerous lesions most often found on the face, neck, forearms, and backs of the hands—all areas exposed to sunlight May become malignant if not treated Most common among older white adults Appear as papules or plaques of irregular shape The hard scale on the lesion may shed and reappear Treatments include drug therapy, cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, and surgical excision What drugs are commonly used to treat actinic keratosis? Cryotherapy is the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy the lesion. Electrodesiccation is the use of electrical current to destroy the lesion, which is then scraped off. 63

64 Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Basal cell carcinoma Painless, nodular lesions; pearly appearance Related to sun exposure Grow slowly and rarely metastasize Treated with surgical excision, Mohs’ micrographic excision, electrodesiccation and curettage, cryotherapy, radiation, or drugs that are applied topically or injected into the lesion Why should they be removed? 64

65 Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma Scaly ulcers or raised lesions Develop on sun-exposed areas including the lips, and in the mouth Caused by overuse of tobacco and alcohol Grow rapidly and metastasize Treatment may include surgical excision, cryotherapy, and radiation therapy 65

66 Figure 50-13A-C 66

67 Melanoma Arises from pigment-producing cells in the skin
Most serious form of skin cancer; fatal if it metastasizes Found anywhere on the body Irregular borders and uneven coloration; many are dark, but some are light. Begin as tan macule that enlarges Removed surgically; a wide area around a melanoma is usually excised Chemotherapy and immunotherapy also may be employed What is Moh’s technique? 67

68 Figure 50-13D 68

69 Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma
Migration of malignant T cells to the skin Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome May resemble eczema, with macular lesions appearing on areas protected from the sun Tumors form, enlarge, spread to distant sites When confined to the skin, this type of lymphoma can be cured with topical chemotherapy, systemic psoralens with UVA, and/or superficial radiotherapy 69

70 Kaposi’s Sarcoma Malignancy of the blood vessels
Red, blue, purple macules with pain, itching, swelling Lesions appear first on the legs and then on the upper body, face, and mouth Enlarge to form large plaques that may drain In patients with HIV but not confined to this group Local lesions excised or injected with intralesional chemotherapy Systemic lesions are treated with chemotherapy, immune therapy, and radiotherapy 70

71 Disorders of the Nails 71

72 Infections Usually indicated by redness, swelling, and pain around the margin of the nail Treated with warm soaks and topical or systemic anti-infectives Incision and drainage may be necessary 72

73 Ingrown Toenail Painful inflammation at distal corner of nail
Caused by trimming nail too short at the corners or wearing shoes that are too tight Ingrown nail should be protected from pressure as it grows out Warm soaks may be soothing Surgical excision of ingrown portion of nail 73

74 Care of the Patient with a Nail Disorder
Assessment Health history should document the diagnoses of diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease In the physical examination, inspect the nails for redness, swelling, or pain Inspect extremities for lesions and abnormal color, and palpate for warmth and peripheral pulses 74

75 Care of the Patient with a Nail Disorder
Interventions Teach patients how to trim their nails correctly and the importance of properly fitting shoes Toenails should be cut straight across and even with the end of the toe If patient cannot care for the feet adequately, refer to a podiatrist Show patients with peripheral vascular disease or diabetes mellitus how to inspect their feet daily and advise them to seek medical attention for any abnormality. What consequences might a minor foot infection have for the patient with poor circulation? 75

76 Burns 76

77 Definition of Burns Tissue injuries caused by heat
Depending on source of injury, burn is described as thermal (flame, flash, scalding liquids, hot objects), chemical, electrical, radiation, or inhalation Leading cause of accidental death despite improved survival rates attributed to advances in the care of burn patients 75% of all burn injuries can be prevented. 77

78 Classification Burn size Burn depth Rule of nines
Lund and Browder method Burn depth Superficial burn (first degree) Affect only the epidermis Superficial or deep partial-thickness burn (second degree) Affects the epidermis and the dermis Full-thickness burns (third degree, fourth degree) Extend into even deeper tissue layers Burns are classified by the size and depth of the tissue injury. How is the extent of a burn often defined? The rule of nines estimates the percentage of body surface area burned. Areas of the body are assigned percentage values of nine or multiples of nine. The Lund and Browder method also estimates the percentage of body surface burned, but the body is divided into smaller segments. 78

79 Figure 50-15 79

80 Figure 50-16 80

81 Figure 50-17 81

82 Burn Severity American Burn Association criteria
Burn size: 25% or more body surface area for people younger than 40 years; 20% or more body surface area for older than 40 years Disfiguring or disabling injuries to the face, eyes, ears, hands, feet, or perineum High-voltage electrical burn injury Inhalation injury Major trauma in addition to the burn 82

83 Pathophysiology of Burn Injury
Local effects Tissue releases chemicals that cause increased capillary permeability, which permits plasma to leak into the tissues Injury to cell membranes permits excess sodium to enter cell and potassium to escape into the extracellular compartment These shifts cause local edema and decrease in cardiac output Fluid evaporates through the wound surface, further contributing to the declining blood volume 18 to 36 hours after a burn injury, capillary permeability begins to normalize and reabsorption of edema fluid begins Cardiac output returns to normal and then increases to meet increased metabolic demands 83

84 Pathophysiology of Burn Injury
Systemic effects Fluid balance Gastrointestinal function Immune system Respiratory system Myocardial depression Psychological effects 84

85 Stages of Burn Injury Emergent: begins with the injury and ends when fluid shifts have stabilized Acute: begins with fluid stabilization and ends when all but 10% of burn wounds are closed or when all wounds are closed Rehabilitation: lasts as long as efforts continue to promote improvement Some sources mark the end of the acute stage when all but 10% of the burn wounds are closed, but others define the acute stage as extending until all wounds are closed. When should physical therapy and occupational therapy be consulted? 85

86 Medical Treatment: Emergent Stage
Assess airway, breathing, and circulation and then determine whether the patient has injuries in addition to the burn If inhalation injury, oxygen therapy is started May require intubation if airway is compromised IV lines established to begin fluid resuscitation and to provide emergency vascular access 86

87 Medical Treatment: Emergent Stage
Indwelling urinary catheter and a nasogastric tube usually inserted Blood drawn for baseline lab studies Tetanus prophylaxis may be administered Pain assessed and analgesics are ordered Wound is cleaned, débrided, and inspected What laboratory work should be ordered? 87

88 Medical Treatment: Emergent Stage
Patient with serious burns is transferred to a burn specialty care unit or a critical care unit IV essential during the first few days of burn treatment Volume based on patient’s weight and extent of injury First 24 hours, IV fluids may consist of various combinations of electrolyte, colloid, and dextrose solutions Second 24 hours, volume decreased based on urine output Fluids then different combinations of electrolyte, colloid, and dextrose solutions Some formulas omit electrolyte solutions in the second 24 hours Antibiotic therapy and surgical procedures 88

89 Wound Care Open method: topical antimicrobials but no dressings
Closed care: topical medications covered by dressings Topical medications: silver sulfadiazine (Silvadene) and mafenide acetate (Sulfamylon) Tetanus booster given if patient has not been immunized within the past 5 years What is wound care after a burn injury intended to do? Open care is less restrictive and simpler than closed care but provides greater opportunity for loss of fluid and heat through the wound surface. Because some areas of the wound may be deeper than other areas, it is not unusual to see open care for some of the patient’s wounds and closed care for others. 89

90 Wound Care For clean partial-thickness wounds that will heal without grafting, temporary wound coverings Amniotic membranes, grafts from cadavers or pigs, and a number of synthetic materials Graft sites also treated with negative pressure wound therapy Donor sites treated with fine-mesh gauze and synthetic and biosynthetic products 90

91 Wound Care Débridement Skin grafting Scarring
Removal of debris and necrotic tissue from a wound By scissors, forceps, surgical excision, or enzymes Skin grafting Autograft: the patient’s own skin Split-thickness or a full-thickness graft Scarring Can be reduced with pressure dressings in the early stages of care, followed by custom-fitted garments that apply continuous pressure A full-thickness burn, however, is often covered by a thick, leathery layer of burned tissue (eschar) that shelters microorganisms and inhibits healing. Eschar must be removed before healing can take place. What techniques may be used for débridement? 91

92 Figure 50-18 92

93 Care of the Patient with Burn Injury
Health history Circumstances surrounding the burn injury Chronic diseases, surgeries, or hospitalizations Medications and allergies Family history even though not specific to burn injuries; it may alert the staff to other problems Review of systems detects current problems Habits and lifestyle, roles and responsibilities, stressors, and coping strategies 93

94 Care of the Patient with Burn Injury
Physical examination Vital signs Inspect for burn wounds and other lesions Wound color and the presence of eschar Palpate intact skin for temperature and turgor Chest expansion observed, and the lungs auscultated for wheezing, stridor, or atelectasis Apical pulse be auscultated for rate and rhythm Abdomen assessed: active bowel sounds/distention Extremities are inspected for injury and deformity ROM assessment is delayed if extremity immobilized 94

95 Care of the Patient with Burn Injury
Interventions Decreased Cardiac Output Fluid Volume Excess Acute Pain Risk for Infection Hypothermia Risk for Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements Impaired Physical Mobility Ineffective Coping Ineffective Family Coping 95

96 Conditions Treated with Plastic Surgery

97 Aesthetic Surgery Alters a body feature that is structurally normal but perceived by the patient as unattractive Examples: rhytidectomy, blepharoplasty, chin implants, rhinoplasty, abdominoplasty, breast augmentation, and breast reduction 97

98 Reconstructive Surgery
Repair disfiguring scars, restore body contours after radical surgery like mastectomy, eliminate benign lesions such as birthmarks, restore features damaged by trauma or disease, and correct developmental defects 98

99 Preoperative Nursing Care
Assessment: health history Patient’s description of plastic surgery and what he or she expects the procedure to accomplish. Past medical history may elicit conditions that might affect wound healing Review of systems: surgical area receives special attention Functional assessment: patient’s lifestyle and usual activities Interventions Anxiety Deficient Knowledge Physical appearance is a component of body image and may affect self-esteem. It is important not to judge the patient’s motivation for seeking surgery. How can the patient's anxiety be reduced” 99

100 Postoperative Nursing Care
Assessment Vital signs and level of consciousness Inspect dressings for drainage or bleeding, but do not remove them without specific orders Observe flaps and grafts for color and evidence of fluid accumulation, and palpate for warmth Inspect and measure drain contents each shift Fluid should lighten from sanguineous (red) to serosanguineous (pink) to serous (pale yellow) Patient’s comfort level 100

101 Postoperative Nursing Care
Acute Pain Risk for Infection Risk for Injury Risk for Deficient Fluid Volume Disturbed Body Image Ineffective Therapeutic Regimen Management 101

Download ppt "Chapter 50 Skin Disorders 1."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google