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Improving the Capacity of the Afghanistan Ministry of Agriculture Irrigation and Livestock to Deliver Extension Services.

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Apple Production in New York State Mahboobullah Oryakhel Cornell University

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Topics Orchard Systems Orchard Systems –Planting Systems –Tree Density and its effects on Yield –Light Interception

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Orchard Systems

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Major Training systems in Use in New York.

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Gala Super Spindle/M.9

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Slender Spindle/M.9

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Tall Spindle/M.9

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Geneva Y-trellis/M.26

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V-Slender Spindle/M.9

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3 Year Old Gala/M.9 Trained to a Vertical Axis

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Vertical Axis/G.202

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Tree Density: The Key to Early Production

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The Geneva Planting Systems Trial ( Planted 1997) SystemSpacing Slender Pyramid/M.710' X 18' Slender Pyramid/M.268' X 16' Vertical Axis/M.97' X 15' Vertical Axis/M.96' X 14' High Density Vertical Axis/M.9 5' X 13' High Density Vertical Axis/M.9 4' X 12' Tall Spindle/M.9 3' X 11' Super Spindle 2' X 10'

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2 Year Old Gala/M.9 trained to Super Spindle

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From Balkhoven- Baart et.al, 2001

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Tree Density and Training System Influence on early Yield Tree density has a larger impact on early yield than training system. Tree density has a larger impact on early yield than training system. Systems that utilize heading cuts in the early years such as Central Leader have lower yields than systems which employ minimal pruning during the first 5 years. Systems that utilize heading cuts in the early years such as Central Leader have lower yields than systems which employ minimal pruning during the first 5 years. Slender PyramidSlender Pyramid Vertical AxisVertical Axis Tall SpindleTall Spindle Super SpindleSuper Spindle Y-trellisY-trellis V-Super SpindleV-Super Spindle

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Tree Density and Training System Influence on Fruit Quality Smaller trees generally have better light distribution and fruit quality. Smaller trees generally have better light distribution and fruit quality. Some very small stature trees have dense canopies because limbs are placed close together. Some very small stature trees have dense canopies because limbs are placed close together. Narrow canopies with open space between the limbs have the best light distribution and the best fruit quality. Narrow canopies with open space between the limbs have the best light distribution and the best fruit quality. Very close tree spacings have slightly less fruit color than wide tree spacings. Very close tree spacings have slightly less fruit color than wide tree spacings.

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Conclusions About Tree Density High tree densities = high early yields High tree densities = high early yields Under NY conditions densities up 2,200 trees/acre are manageable and produce extremely high cumulative yields but the optimum density depends on economic factors and is less than the extremely high densities. Under NY conditions densities up 2,200 trees/acre are manageable and produce extremely high cumulative yields but the optimum density depends on economic factors and is less than the extremely high densities. High mature orchard yields depend on high light interception. Trees must be designed to intercept 70% of available light by having tree height at least 80% of row spacing. High mature orchard yields depend on high light interception. Trees must be designed to intercept 70% of available light by having tree height at least 80% of row spacing. Open canopies give better quality than compact dense forms. Open canopies give better quality than compact dense forms.

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Light Interception: The Key to High Mature Yields

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The Apple Tree Vegetative Parts Fruit Leaf Solar Radiation % Light Interception

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Depth of Canopy Affects Light Distribution and Fruit Quality

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Large CL/M.7 Small CL/M.9/MM.111 Short Slender Spindle/M.9 Y-Trellis/M.26

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Geneva Y-trellis/M.26

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How To Assure High Light Interception? Develop proper height of tree. Develop proper height of tree. For semi-dwarf trees, tree height should be 80% of the tree row width.For semi-dwarf trees, tree height should be 80% of the tree row width. For 18 ft rows tree height should be 14.5 ft. For 18 ft rows tree height should be 14.5 ft. For 16 ft rows tree height should be 13 ft. For 16 ft rows tree height should be 13 ft. For dwarf trees, tree height should be 90% of the tree row width.For dwarf trees, tree height should be 90% of the tree row width. For 14 ft rows tree height should be 12.5 ft. For 14 ft rows tree height should be 12.5 ft. For 12 ft rows tree height should be 10.8 ft. For 12 ft rows tree height should be 10.8 ft. For 10 ft rows tree height should be 9 ft. For 10 ft rows tree height should be 9 ft.

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Acknowledgments Photos provided by: Ian Mervin – Cornell University Ian Mervin – Cornell University Terence L. Robinson Terence L. Robinson New York State Agricultural Experiment Station Cornell University - Geneva, NY

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