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MAASAI Semi-nomadic Pastoralists Known for their:

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Presentation on theme: "MAASAI Semi-nomadic Pastoralists Known for their:"— Presentation transcript:

1 MAASAI Semi-nomadic Pastoralists Known for their:
Elaborate hair style Wealth is determined by _____________ Will drink cows blood Being forced off their land to make room for tourism

2 What is Genocide? Genocide: is any act that is intended to destroy, in whole or part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group. Examples: Killing members of a group Causing bodily or mental harm Inflicting negative conditions of life Prevent births Transfer children

3 Causes of GENOCIDE Difficult social conditions
intense economic problems intense political conflict this can be conflict between dominant groups and subordinate ones that are poor and have limited rights very great and rapid social changes

4 cultural aspects that make genocide probable
Define SCAPEGOATING: History of conflict and violence between two groups Strong respect for authority Totalitarian countries are more likely to engage in genocide than democratic. WHY? How does passivity increase the violence? The New York Times: Multimedia Search for 'rwanda'


6 Hutu/ Tutsi Conflict Hutu 85% of Population Under colonial rule:
serfs/ peasants After independence: Hutu’s wanted power back After plane crash of Hutu leaders, Hutus begin to commit killings of Tutsis Tutsi 15% of population Under colonial rule: Upper class After independence: Tried to keep power 800,000 massacred Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) Tutsi militia group Ended the genocide

7 RWANDA Hutus are the ______________ Tutsi are the ______________
The European power that imperialized Rwanda is ________ Independence was gained in 1961 Hutus took power 200,000 Tutsi’s fled Rwanda Tutsi’s formed the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) a militia group Paul Kagame

8 Rwanda’s Colonial Legacy
1600s- Tutsi kings conquered Hutus feudal system set up 1916- Belgium took control of Rwanda required identity cards labeled w/ person’s ethnicity ruled through Tutsi kings Tutsi were the minority 1959-Hutus rebelled against Tutsis 20,000 killed others forced into exile

9 The Spark 1994: Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, plane was shot down Who shot down the plane? Gov’t encourages Hutus to kill Tutsi over the radio an unofficial militia group called the Interahamwe (meaning those who attack together) began to massacre Tutsi’s Death toll: _____________ @ Hutu: ______________ Why? RPF defeated the Interahamwe Defeated Hutus (2 million) flee to Zaire in fear of retribution

10 Timeline April 7- killing of moderate Hutu politicians and Tutsi leaders US evacuates Americans 8000 dead General Dallaire, head of UN peacekeepers, is told not to intervene April massacres of ordinary Tutsis 32,000 dead

11 April 21-22- UN votes to withdraw 90% of peacekeepers from Rwanda
April 19- New York Times report people shot and hacked to death in a church where they sought refuge 72,000 dead April UN votes to withdraw 90% of peacekeepers from Rwanda 112,000 dead Tutsi man who survived a machete attack

12 Timeline April 25- UN troops reduced to 450
144,000 dead April 27- Pope John Paul II is 1st to call it “genocide” 160,000 dead US cautious to use word “genocide”- WHY? Do you think it was? May ,000 dead- UN decides to send in 5000 troops but argue over who will pay, troops do not arrive until JULY! (Skulls ironically beside a poster of Pope John Paul II. Catholic churches became places of killing during the genocide and two nuns were convicted of genocide by the Arusha Court. )

13 Timeline May 25- President Clinton gives speech
What is he saying? July 17- Tutsi forces Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) capture capital of Kigali, Hutu government and refugees flee to Zaire (DR Congo) 800,000 dead “Whether we [the US] get involved in any of the world's ethnic conflicts in the end must depend on the cumulative weight of the American interests at stake."

14 Aftermath Tutsis recapture capital
w/ help from the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF) Death toll equaled 10% of the population 90% of victims were Tutsi 10% were moderate Hutus 2 million Hutu refugees flee in fear Rwanda’s leader at the time, Jean Kambanda (Hutu), put on trial Given life in prison

15 Reflection Why do you think this event started?
Was Rwanda a genocide? Explain. What should the United Nations have done? Explain. What should the US have done? Explain. Heroes and Bystanders

16 Sudan’s Darfur Crisis

17 Sudan Crisis Janjaweed Black Africans Muslims Beginnings:
Arab Muslim militia Supported b/t gov’t Black Africans Muslims Victims of the Janjaweed Beginnings: Black Africans wanted political power and economic equality Janjaweed used to expel and combat Darfurians

18 Refugee Camps -Majority fled to neighboring Chad -1million million total -Problems: food, water, unsanitary

19 What are some similarities and differences between Rwanda and Sudan?





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