2 What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena.The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process.The use of science and technology to provide evidence.
3 When is forensics Science used? To solve any problem whether criminal or historical in nature.
4 What is Evidence? Must be relevant to the case at hand. Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue. Probative evidence: tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation
5 Forensic Evidence? IT IS NOT CSI…. Is used to establish whether a particular person or thing COULD be at a particular place at a specific time.
6 Hieronymus Boschan eccentric Dutch painter of religious visions who dealt in particular with the torments of hell.
7 St. John on Patmos, approx. 1485 Make three observations:
8 St. Christopher Carrying the Christ Child through a Sinful World, Bosch, c1520
11 Hieronymus Bosch Madman or Medical Analyst So we dig deeper and find that amputated limbs were saved during Bosch's time so they might be rejoined to their owners at the last judgment.Amputation is a gangrenous preventionThe odd vegetable creature is painted in the shape of a mandrake root. Mandrake was the herb used to stanch the feverish pains of St. Anthony's Fire.The distillery used to reduce medicinal herbs.
12 As a Forensic Scientist what are some questions you would ask? Does he have any diagnosis medical or psychological conditions?Apocalyptic personality?What was also happening at that time?
13 Historians Know: What can be going on at that time? St. Anthony's Fire was rampant.fiery pain, hallucinations, disorientation, muscle cramps, convulsions, miscarriages, *gangreneToday we know that St. Anthony's Fire was caused by a form of Rye/grain fungus called ergot.
14 St. Anthony’s Fire: Ergot *Ergot of rye is produced by a lower fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that grows parasitically on rye, other grains and wild grasses.
18 Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) LSD is one of the most powerful known hallucinogenic drugs.It was invented in 1938, derived from mushrooms.SO WHO CARES?
19 Hieronymus Bosch Madman or Medical Analyst Bosch's Paintings actually documented beliefs and medical procedures used to assist with St. Anthony’s Fire.Amputation is a gangrenous preventionodd vegetable creatures= mandrake rootThe distillery used to reduce medicinal herbs.
20 Ergot in historyFurthermore, since ergot baked in bread dough forms LSD, the disease also led to terrifying hallucinationsIndeed there is the belief that the Salem witch-hangings that went on in Salem, Massachusetts (1692) occurred during an outbreak of rye ergot.
21 Salem Witch trials(June -September of 1692) 19 men and women were convicted of witchcraft and hung100s of others faced accusations of witchcraft.Dozens languished in jails. 1 man was pressed to death under heavy stones
22 Salem witch trials (1692)According to historian Mary Matossian in her book Poisons of the Past, she noted symptoms of the people to be sensations of:Prickling or ants crawling on the skinDistortions of the faceParalysisHallucinationsConvulsive violent seizuresDementiaAll these symptoms were consistent with those suffering from ergotism.
23 9/4 Do Now: Please get out and be ready to submit: Your Contract Student Information
24 Do Now 9/4:Identify at least six specific forensic units used to examine Senator Daschle’s letter.
26 What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena.The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process.The use of science and technology to provide evidence.
27 Evidence? Must be relevant to the case at hand Must be more probative than prejudicial on the issue Probative evidence: tending to prove a particular proposition or to persuade you of the truth of an allegation
28 Forensic Evidence?Is used to establish whether a particular person or thing COULD be at a particular place at a specific time.
29 Forensics incorporates the use of many sciences: BiologyPhysiology, Odontology, PathologyChemistrySpectrophotometry, Thin layer ChromatographyPhysicsFriction, Ballistics, trajectory and motionGeologyArcheology, Mineralogy
30 Forensicsfrom L. forensis "of a forum, place of assembly," from forum.Used in sense of "pertaining to legal trials," as in forensic medicine (1845).
31 I. Introduction What is forensics Science? Use of the scientific method in the legal arena.The transfer of scientific techniques to aid the legal process.The use of science and technology to provide evidence.
32 II. History and Development Major Scientists: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle( ) influences?Sherlock Holmes 1887:*Used fingerprinting, firearms identification, serology,*Used a scientific method of detection
33 Do Now : Timeframe: 10 minutes Affiliations from Court TV
34 II. History and Development Major Scientists: Mathieu Orfila: 1814 father of forensic toxicology.Alphonse Bertillon: 1879 father of Criminal Identification -developed Anthropometry: a series of body measurements as a means of distinguishing one individual from another.-Used for two decades and was later replaced by fingerprinting.Forensic Timeline
35 II. History and Development Francis Galton: 1892 the first finger printerUndertook the study, classification and filing of fingerprints.DR Karl Landsteiner: 1901 (4) blood typesLeone Lattes: 1915 developed a method of determining a blood type form a dried sample.
36 II. History Calvin Goddard: analyzed Firearms and refined bullet Identification by using aComparison microscope.
37 II. History and Development Albert Osborn: 1910 developed the reference text for document examiners.Walter C. McCrone: applied analytical problem solving techniques in solving forensic science cases by using microscopy.Highly sought after and leading instructor that educated thousands in application microscopy.
38 II. History and Development 1893 Hans Gross: wrote one of the first comprehensive forensics texts applying the uses of many scientific disciplines.
39 II. History Edmond Locard: Developed Locard’s Exchange Principle 1910: one of the first site based forensic labs.Founder of Institue of Crimminalistsics at the universiy of LyonsDeveloped Locard’s Exchange Principle
40 What is Locards’s Exchange Principle? Do Now :What is Locards’s Exchange Principle?
41 II. History Locard’s Exchange Principle: The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another.
42 II. History Locard’s Exchange Principle: The exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another.First major case: Counterfeit coinsAnalyzed metallic particles found in clothing, same as the counterfeit coins
43 FBI lab1932, the FBI under J. Edger Hoover organized a national laboratory that aimed to offer forensic services to all law enforcement agencies in the country. *at no expense*
44 FBI labOne of the largest and most comprehensive forensic laboratories in the world.Formed the FBI’s Forensics Science research and Training Center in 1981
45 Laboratory examiners provide expert witness testimony: FBI labLaboratory examiners provide expert witness testimony:In cases regarding the results of forensic examinationSpecial Agent and support personnel assist domestic and international law enforcement agencies in large-scale investigations and disasters
46 III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory Why are their so many new lab?Increase in Drug analysis and DNA profiling:Bloodstains, semen stains, hair and saliva residue, bite marks,
47 III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory Rapid growth yet lack of national and regional planning?320 Public crime labsFederal, state, county, municipalMost placed under police dep.Prosecutors/district attorneyMedical examiner or coroner
48 III. Organization of a Crime Laboratory NO single law enforcement or investigative agency with unlimited jurisdiction so four major labs were set up:FBIDrug Enforcement Administration (DEA)Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and ExplosivesUS Postal Inspection Service
52 Do Now 9/10:Identify at least six specific forensic units used to examine Senator Daschle’s letter.
53 III. OrganizationSome states have developed a comprehensive STATEWIDE system of regional/satellites laboratories.Alabama, CaliforniaIllinois MichiganNew Jersey TexasWashington OregonVirginia FloridaMany of the larger cities also have their own crime labs. New York
55 Please identify the the various Services provided by Crime Labs Basic Full service1 Physical Science Unit2345Optional Services12345
56 IV. Services of the Crime Lab Basic Full servicePhysical Science UnitBiology UnitFirearms UnitDocument Examination UnitPhotography UnitOptional ServicesToxicology UnitLatent Fingerprint UnitPolygraph UnitVoiceprint Analysis UnitEvidence-Collection Unit
57 Basic Services: Physical Science Unit Uses chemistry, physics and geology for:Drug identificationSoil and mineral IdentificationExamination of physical evidence
58 Basic Services: Biology Unit Biologists and Biochemists are used for:DNA identification and profiling of dried blood and other body fluidsThe comparison of hairs and fibersThe comparison of Botanicals
59 Basic Services: Firearms Unit Examination of:Firearms and their discharged bulletscartridge cases and shotgun shellsGarments and objects examined to determine type of gun and position of shooter.And the comparison of marks made by tools
60 Firearms UnitClose Contact Gunshot Wound ACP close range wound with powder burns.Close Contact Gunshot Wound - muzzle flash injury from a M14 fitted with a flash suppressor
61 Firearms Unitposition of the shooter!! Historical case
62 Basic Services: Document Examination Unit Ascertain documents authenticityAnalysis of: handwriting and typewritingink and paperVisible depressionsObliterationsErasuresBurned and charred documents
63 Basic Services: Photography Unit A complete photographic laboratory is maintained to examine and record physical evidence.May use: digital imaging, infrared, Ultraviolet and x-ray photography techniquesAids in court case photographic exhibits for court presentations
64 Optional Services: Toxicology Unit Studies bodily fluids and organs to determine presence or absence of drugs and poisons.Blood -alcohol
65 COURT TVIn your notes, Briefly discuss how and why a “Psychic Detective”Could be justified,Should be excluded as an expert witness in a court of law
66 Optional Services:Latent Fingerprint Unit Processing and examining evidence for *latent fingerprints.Prints made by the deposit of oils and/perspiration/ It is invisible to the naked eye.
67 Optional Services: Polygraph Unit AKA lie detector :an instrument that simultaneously records changes in physiological processes such as heartbeat, blood pressure, and respiration.The underlying theory of the polygraph is that when people lie they also get measurably nervous about lying. The heartbeat increases, blood pressure goes up, breathing rhythms change, perspiration increases, etc.
68 Optional Services: Voice Print Analysis Unit Use sound *spectrograph to identify voicesTelephoned threatsTaped recorded messagesEven basic identity*transforms speech into a visual graphic display, called a voiceprint.
70 Optional Services: Evidence-collection Unit Collects and preserves physical evidence that will later be processed at the crime lab.Many officers also being train in the proper collection of evidence.
71 Other Forensic Services: Forensic Pathology Investigation of sudden, violent or unexplained deathsUsually preformed by a coronerQuestions sought to answer:Who is the victimWhat injuries are presentWhen did the injuries occurWhy and how were the injuries produced
72 Forensic Pathology*A trajectory analysis of JFK's inshoot/outshoot head wounds,*Shows an inconsistency with the HSCA trajectory conclusions.
73 Forensic Pathology Autopsy performed to establish cause of death. Classifications of Death*Natural*Homicide*Suicide*Accident*Undetermined
74 HW: Research and Identify How investigators estimate time of death..
75 Forensic Pathology 9 Ways of Estimating Actual Time of Death: Rigor mortisLivor mortis: (Lividity)Algor mortis: Body Core TemperaturePotassium levels in vitreous humor + Clouding of the corneaStomach ContentsEvidence of Decompositional ProcessPresence/absence of purge fluidsDrying of the tissueLarval Instars
76 Forensic Pathology Estimating Time of Death 1. Rigor mortis: (L: rig- stiff; mortis—death) * Muscles become rigid** W/I 24 hours but gone after 36 hours“The biochemical cause of rigor mortis is hydrolysis of ATP in the muscle tissue, the chemical energy source required for movement. Myosin molecules devoid of ATP become permanently adherent to actin filaments and muscles become rigid.”
78 With the aid of an electron microscope it can be seen that each muscle fiber is made up of many smaller units, the myofibrils. Each myofibril consists of small protein filaments, known as actin and myosin filaments. The myosin filaments are slightly thicker and make up the dark band (or A-band). The actin filaments make up the light bands (I-bands) which are situated on either side of the dark band. The actin filaments are attached to the Z-line. This arrangement of actin and myosin filaments is known as a sacromere.
79 With the aid of an electron microscope it can be seen that each muscle fibre is made up of many smaller units, the myofibrils. Each myofibril consists of small protein filaments, known as actin and myosin filaments. The myosin filaments are slightly thicker and make up the dark band (or A-band). The actin filaments make up the light bands (I-bands) which are situated on either side of the dark band. The actin filaments are attached to the Z-line. This arrangement of actin and myosin filaments is known as a sacromere.
80 2. Livor mortis or (postmortem lividity) : (L: liv-bluish) * Is a settling of the blood in the lower portion of the body** Causing a purplish red discoloration of the skin.*** Discoloration does not occur in the areas of the body that are in contact with the ground or another object,
81 3. Algor mortis (L: algor—coolness; ath) * the reduction in body temperature following death.** a steady decline until matching ambient temperature*** A measured rectal temperature can give some indication of the time of death.The Glaister equation: /2 degree F per hourAlgor mortis is usually the first sign of death, beyond the obvious, and is then followed by rigor mortis. As decomposition occurs the internal body temperature tends to rise again.Newton's law of cooling states that the rate of cooling of a body is determined by the difference between the temperature of the body and that of its environment.
82 4. Potassium levels in vitreous humor (ocular fluid) – after death, cells lining the inner surface of the eye release potassium into the ocular fluid, by testing at regular intervals, the forensic pathologist can determine the rate of potassium release and use that to approximate the time of death.5. Amount of food found in the victim's stomach can be used to determine when the last meal was consumed and rates of digestion are known and are used to help estimate time of death.
83 What is an Expert witness? An individual whom the court determines possesses knowledge relevant to the trial that is not expected of the average layperson
84 What MAKES an Expert witness? Competency may be established:Educational degreesFormal training/ specific course workMembershipspublications
85 Court Cases involving use of forensics in Judicial proceedings. Frey v. United StatesRule 702Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, incKumho Tire Co v. Carmichael.
86 Frey v. United States, (D.C. Cir. 1923) Depends on general acceptance by a “meaningful segment” of the scientific communityDecision of admission of PROCEDURES, TECHNIQUES AND PRINCIPLES.In practice , this approach required the proponent of a scientific test to present to the court a collection of experts who can testify that the procedure IS accepted by the relevant members of the “community”.
87 Frey v. United StatesIS He accepted by the relevant members of the “community”.So the standardis only as usefulas the validity ofthe community.
88 Rule 702, (1937)Rule 702 provides: The facts or data in the particular case upon which an expert bases an opinion or inference may be those perceived by or made known to the expert at or before the hearing. If of a type reasonably relied upon by experts in the particular field in forming opinion or inferences upon the subject, the facts or data need not be admissible in evidence in order for the opinion or inference to be admitted.
89 Rule 702A more flexible standard that did not rely on General AcceptanceTechnical and specialized knowledge will assist the fact to understand evidence.Witness qualified by knowledge, skill, experience, training/education is1. testimony is based on fact2.testimony is the product of reliable principles+ methods3.the witness applied the principles + methods reliably to the facts of the case.
90 Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, inc Frye standard not absolute!!Trial judges assume the must assume the ultimate responsibility as the: Gatekeeper!!!!Has it attracted widespread acceptance Principles must beTestedPeer reviewedLow Percent errorHave a set techniques, maintenance and standard controlsBe Accepted within a relevant scientific community.
91 Kumko Tire v. Carmichael Good for scientific testimony and to all expert testimony.Supported Daubert decision of admission of Procedures, techniques and principles, BUT also extended gatekeeper responsibilities as to the admissibility of EXPERT TESTOMONY.“Technical and other specialized knowledge”