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PowerPoint Lecture Notes PresentationCHAPTER 16 Social Psychology PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Introductory DefinitionSocial Psychology: study of how other people influence our thoughts, feelings, & actions ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Thoughts About OthersAttribution: explanation for the cause of behaviors or events To determine the cause we first decide whether the behavior comes from an: internal (dispositional) cause, such as personal characteristics, or external (situational) cause, such as situational demands. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Thoughts About Others: Mistaken AttributionsFundamental Attribution Error: misjudging causes of others’ behavior & attributing to internal (dispositional) vs. external (situational) ones Saliency bias may help explain this focus on dispositional causes. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Thoughts About Others…Just-World Phenomenon Belief that people generally get what they deserve and deserve what they get ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Thoughts About Others: Mistaken Attributions2. Self-Serving Bias: taking credit for our successes, & externalizing our failures ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Thoughts About Others: Cognitive DissonanceCognitive Dissonance: feeling of discomfort created from a mismatch between an attitude & a behavior or between two competing attitudes ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Thoughts About Others: Cognitive Dissonance (Continued)©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Feelings About Others: Prejudice & DiscriminationPrejudice: learned, generally negative, attitude toward members of a group Discrimination: negative behaviors directed at members of a group ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Three Components of Prejudice1. Cognitive (thoughts associated with objects of prejudice) Stereotype: set of beliefs about the characteristics of people in a group generalized to all group members 2. Affective (feelings associated with objects of prejudice) 3. Behavioral (actions associated with objects of prejudice) Discrimination: negative behaviors directed at members of a group ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Sources of Prejudice & DiscriminationLearning Personal Experiences Mental shortcut Ingroup Favoritism: ingroup viewed more positively than outgroup Outgroup Homogeneity Effect: outgroup judged as less diverse than ingroup Economic & political competition Displaced aggression ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Critical ThinkingDo you believe you are free of prejudice? Would you be friends &/or date people within all ethnic groups? If you’re heterosexual, would you share a college dorm room with someone who is gay or lesbian? Why or why not? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Feelings About Others: Interpersonal AttractionInterpersonal Attraction: positive feelings toward another Three Key Factors: Physical Attractiveness Proximity: geographic closeness Similarity: need complementarity vs. need compatibility ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Feelings About Others: Interpersonal AttractionCompanionate Love: lasting attraction based on trust, caring, tolerance, & friendship Romantic Love: erotic attraction with future expectations ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: AssessmentBriefly explain how prejudice differs from discrimination. How does romantic love differ from companionate love? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Social InfluenceConformity: changing behavior because of real or imagined group pressure Obedience: following direct commands, usually from an authority figure ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: ConformityAsch’s Conformity Study Participants were asked to select the line closest in length to X. When confederates first gave obviously wrong answers (A or C), more than 1/3 of true subjects conformed & agreed with the incorrect choices. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Conformity (Continued)Why do we conform? Normative Social Influence: need for approval & acceptance Informational Social Influence: need for information & direction Reference Groups: we conform to people we like & admire because we want to be like them ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: ObedienceMilgram’s obedience study: Participants serving as “teachers” were ordered to continue shocking someone with a known heart condition who is begging to be released. Result? 65% of “teachers” delivered highest level of shock (450 volts) to the pseudo-heart condition “learner.” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Milgram’s Shock Generator©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Milgram’s Experiment Video ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Obedience (Continued)Four major factors affecting obedience: legitimacy & closeness of the authority figure remoteness of the victim assignment of responsibility modeling/imitation ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Critical ThinkingHow would you have behaved if you were a “teacher” in Milgram’s obedience studies? Would you have given the highest level of shocks? What about your best friend or parents? Would their behavior differ from yours? Why & how? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Group ProcessesGroup membership involves: Roles: set of behavioral patterns connected with particular social positions Deindividuation: anonymity leads to reduced inhibition, self-consciousness, & personal responsibility ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Group Processes: “Power of the Situation”Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Study Students were randomly assigned to play the role of either “prisoner” or “guard.” Original study, scheduled for 2 weeks, was stopped after 6 days due to serious psychological changes in both “prisoners” & “guards.” ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Group Processes: Problems with Decision MakingGroup Polarization: group movement toward either a riskier or more conservative decision; result depends on the members’ initial dominant tendency Groupthink: faulty decision making occurring when a highly cohesive group seeks agreement & avoids inconsistent information ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Group Processes (Continued)Symptoms of Groupthink: Illusion of invulnerability Belief in group’s morality Collective rationalizations Stereotypes of out-groups Self-censorship Illusion of unanimity Direct pressure on dissenters ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: AggressionAggression: any behavior intended to harm someone ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Aggression (Continued)Biological Factors in Aggression: instincts, genes, brain & nervous system, substance abuse & other mental disorders, hormones & neurotransmitters ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Aggression (Continued)Psychosocial Factors in Aggression: Aversive stimuli Culture & learning Violent media/ video games ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Aggression (Continued)How can we control or reduce aggression? Catharsis? (Doesn’t really work) Introduce incompatible responses (e.g., humor) Improve social & communication skills ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: AltruismAltruism: actions designed to help others with no obvious benefit to the helper ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: AltruismWhy do we help? Evolutionary Model: favors survival of one’s genes Egoistic Model: helping motivated by anticipated gain Empathy-Altruism Model: helping motivated by empathy ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: Altruism©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: AltruismWhy Don’t We Help? Diffusion of Responsibility: dilution, or diffusion, of personal responsibility Ambiguity of the Situation: unclear what help is needed ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Latane & Darley’s 5-Step Decision Process for Helping©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Our Actions Toward Others: AltruismHow can we increase helping? Assign responsibility Reduce ambiguity Increase societal rewards ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: AssessmentBriefly explain how groupthink differs from group polarization. What are the best ways to reduce aggression & increase altruism? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Applying Social Psychology to Social ProblemsPrejudice & Discrimination Destructive Obedience ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Applying Social Psychology to Social ProblemsHow can we reduce prejudice & discrimination? Encourage cooperation & common goals Intergroup contact Cognitive retraining Employ cognitive dissonance ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Applying Social Psychology to Social Problems:How can we reduce destructive obedience? Adjust socialization toward obedience Recognize power of the situation Protect against groupthink Avoid foot-in-the-door technique: making a small request followed by increasingly larger requests Guard against relaxed moral guard Increase disobedient models ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Psychology at WorkPsychology provides scientific research & insight into social problems, like prejudice & destructive obedience. Psychologists also produce concrete suggestions for reducing these problems. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
Pause & Reflect: Critical ThinkingChapter 16 is often the last chapter covered in a general psychology course. If this is true for you, stop & take the time to list the TOP 5 to 10 concepts or terms that you learned in this course & want to remember and possibly apply in your everyday life. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
PowerPoint Lecture Notes PresentationEnd of CHAPTER 16 Social Psychology PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010
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