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Plant Anatomy and PhysiologyAP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology
Angiosperm divisions Dicot 2 cotyledons: storage tissue for embryoNetted veins 4X 5X petals Ring of vascular bundles taproot Monocot 1 cotyledon Parallel veins 3X petals Scattered vas. Bundle Fibrous root
Plant tissue Ground tissue: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchymaDermal tissue: lower and upper epidermis, cuticle Vascular tissue: xylem and phloem
Vascular tissue Xylem: primary and secondary cell wall, pits vs. perforations, tracheids vs. vessel elements Phloem: sieve tube members, pores, sieve plants, companion cells, plasmodesmata
Meristems Shoot Lateral Root
Seed Embryo: epicotyl (shoot tip), plumule (young leaves), hypocotyl (young shoot), radicle (root), coleoptile (sheath of monocot) Seed coat Endosperm or cotyledons Remains dormant until ABA washed away
Seed Plumule Radicle Endosperm Seed coat Cotyledon Hypocotyl: dicotColeoptile: monocot
Germination: breaking dormancyImbibition: absorb water, removing ABA, gibberellin promotes germination Meristamtic cells: actively dividing cells (primary growth) Root: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, root cap, zone of maturation
Primary vs. secondary growthPrimary growth: primary xylem and phloem (still living) Secondary growth: increases girth (width), occurs at vascular cambium and cork cambium, VC wood, CC periderm (cork)
Root structure Epidermis with root hairs Cortex EndodermisVascular cylinder (stele)
Stem structure Epidermis with cutin CortexVascular cylinder (xylem, phloem, pith) Secondary growth in stems: sapwood heartwood (annual rings)
Secondary stem growth – vascular cambium
Cell plates – plant mitosis
Leaf structure Epidermis with cuticle Palisade mesophyllSpongy mesophyll Vascular bundle Guard cells with stomata
Transport Transpiration – water transportBulk flow/source to sink – sugar transport
Transport types Plasmodesmata: connects two plant cellsSymplast vs. apoplast
Water transwport Apoplast: within cell walls or between cellsSymplast (within cells, plasmodesmata) Requires osmosis, capillary action, cohesion-tension
Root and H2O
Leaf water potential
Controlling stomata Factors causing stomata to close high temperatureCO2 concentrations low Night diffusion of K+ out of guard cells
Sieve tube: pressure flow
Hormone overview Auxin Abscisic acid Brassinoid Cytokinin EthyleneGibberellin
PLANT FORM AND FUNCTION
Ch 23- Roots, Stems, and Leaves
BIOL 197L - Lab #6: PLANT MORPHOLOGY, GROWTH, MICROANATOMY, AND TRANSPORT.
Roots, Stems, and Leaves.
Chapter 35 Reading Quiz What are the three basic plant organs?
Unit 7 Plants Ch. 23 Roots, Stems, & Leaves.
Plant Structure and Growth
Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Introduction The Angiosperm Body Plant Growth.
Anatomy, Morphology, & Growth of Angiosperms – Ch. 5-8
Unit 7 Chapter 23 Plant Structure and Function
A seed plant is anchored in the ground by its
Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves
Roots, Stems & Leaves.
The Plant Kingdom (Part I)
Figure 28.2 A comparison of monocots and eudicots
Plant Structure, Growth, and Development
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What is structure B? Periderm Secondary Xylem Secondary Phloem
Chapters 21 and 22.
Plant Structure And Growth
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