Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Plant Anatomy and Physiology

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Plant Anatomy and Physiology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Plant Anatomy and Physiology
AP Biology Exam Review Plant Anatomy and Physiology

2 Angiosperm divisions Dicot 2 cotyledons: storage tissue for embryo
Netted veins 4X 5X petals Ring of vascular bundles taproot Monocot 1 cotyledon Parallel veins 3X petals Scattered vas. Bundle Fibrous root

3 Plant tissue Ground tissue: parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma
Dermal tissue: lower and upper epidermis, cuticle Vascular tissue: xylem and phloem

4 Vascular tissue Xylem: primary and secondary cell wall, pits vs. perforations, tracheids vs. vessel elements Phloem: sieve tube members, pores, sieve plants, companion cells, plasmodesmata

5 Xylem

6 Phloem

7 Meristems Shoot Lateral Root

8 Seed Embryo: epicotyl (shoot tip), plumule (young leaves), hypocotyl (young shoot), radicle (root), coleoptile (sheath of monocot) Seed coat Endosperm or cotyledons Remains dormant until ABA washed away

9 Seed Plumule Radicle Endosperm Seed coat Cotyledon Hypocotyl: dicot
Coleoptile: monocot

10 Germination: breaking dormancy
Imbibition: absorb water, removing ABA, gibberellin promotes germination Meristamtic cells: actively dividing cells (primary growth) Root: zone of cell division, zone of elongation, root cap, zone of maturation

11 Seed germination

12 Primary vs. secondary growth
Primary growth: primary xylem and phloem (still living) Secondary growth: increases girth (width), occurs at vascular cambium and cork cambium, VC  wood, CC  periderm (cork)

13 Root structure Epidermis with root hairs Cortex Endodermis
Vascular cylinder (stele)

14 Root

15 Stem structure Epidermis with cutin Cortex
Vascular cylinder (xylem, phloem, pith) Secondary growth in stems: sapwood  heartwood (annual rings)

16 Secondary stem growth – vascular cambium

17 Cell plates – plant mitosis

18 Tree stem

19 Leaf structure Epidermis with cuticle Palisade mesophyll
Spongy mesophyll Vascular bundle Guard cells with stomata

20 Leaves

21 Transport Transpiration – water transport
Bulk flow/source to sink – sugar transport

22 Transport types Plasmodesmata: connects two plant cells
Symplast vs. apoplast

23 Water transwport Apoplast: within cell walls or between cells
Symplast (within cells, plasmodesmata) Requires osmosis, capillary action, cohesion-tension

24 Root and H2O

25 Leaf water potential

26 Controlling stomata Factors causing stomata to close high temperature
CO2 concentrations low Night diffusion of K+ out of guard cells

27 Stomata control

28 Sugar transport

29 Sieve tube: pressure flow

30 Mineral uptake

31 Symbiotic bacteria

32 Double fertilization

33 Auxin

34 Signaling

35 Hormone overview Auxin Abscisic acid Brassinoid Cytokinin Ethylene

Download ppt "Plant Anatomy and Physiology"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google