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Acupuncture for Neurological Disorders

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Presentation on theme: "Acupuncture for Neurological Disorders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Acupuncture for Neurological Disorders
It matters not whether medicine is new or old, it only matters that it is applied for the benefit of the patient.

2 Neurologic Assessment
Is it a neurologic disease? Seizures Intention tremor CN deficits Head tilt Nystagmus CP deficits Dysmetria Paralysis

3 Minimum Database CBC Chemistry Urinalysis
Bile acids Cholinesterase Urinalysis Chest and abdominal radiographs Abdominal ultrasound Heartworm test Fecal

4 Ancillary Neurologic Tests
Electrodiagnostics EEG EMG BAER CSF tap & analysis Cells & protein Pressure Cholinesterase Titers Radiographs Skull & spinal films Myelography CT scan MRI Muscle Analysis Enzymes 2M antibody Anti-ACH receptor antibody Biopsy

5 When all else fails… Look at the patient!!!

6 Outcome of Neurologic Assessment
Localization of Lesion D A M N I T V Def (Qi, Yin, Blood) Jing Def Def (Qi, Yin, Blood, Yang) Stagnation (Blood) Jing Def/Excess or Def Phlegm Fire Trauma Excess or Def Wind Phlegm O

7 Plan Problem List ? Differential Dx ? Diagnostic Approach Treatment P

8 Seizures in Small Animals
It is estimated that the overall incidence of seizure disorders in dogs and cats is around 1% In pure breed dogs, this incidence may increase to 15-20%, due to the presence of inherited, primary epilepsy in those breeds

9 Lesion Localization in Seizures
Cerebral Cortex Diencephalon Thalamus Hypothalamus Mesencephalon

10 Probably Symptomatic Epilepsy
Seizure Diagnoses Probably Symptomatic Epilepsy Symptomatic Epilepsy

11 Seizure Diagnosis Minimum Database CSF tap & analysis CT or MRI Scan
Abnormal in Reactive Epilepsy CSF tap & analysis Abnormal in Active Secondary Epilepsy CT or MRI Scan Abnormal in Active Secondary Epilepsy EEG Abnormal in Secondary Epilepsy All test are normal in Primary Epilepsy

12 Asymmetrical Seizures

13 Licking Seizure

14 Fly-Biting Seizure

15 Seizures and Signalment
Primary Epilepsy- purebred dogs 1-3 years of age Secondary Epilepsy- any age but especially under 6 months and over 3 years

16 Seizures- -TCM Represent various aspects of the Liver (Wood) system
Excess (3 types) Deficiency (3 types)

17 Seizures- -TCM Excess Deficiency Wind-Phlegm Phlegm-Fire
Tongue pale & greasy Pulse wiry & slippery Phlegm-Fire Tongue red & greasy Pulse rapid, wiry & slippery Blood Stagnation Tongue & Pulse like Wind-Phlegm History of head trauma Deficiency Liver Blood Def. Tongue pale & dry Pulse weak & thready Liver & Kidney Yin Def. Tongue red & dry Kidney Jing Def. Tongue pale or red & dry < 1 year of age

18 Seizures- -TCM Excess Deficiency Wind-Phlegm Phlegm-Fire
expel phlegm, extinguish the wind, open the orifice and stabilize the seizures Ding Xian Wan Phlegm-Fire clear the liver, drain the heat, transform phlegm and open the orifices Di Tan Tang and Long Dan Xie Gan Tang Blood Stagnation expel phlegm, extinguish the wind, open the orifice, stabilize the seizures and invigorate blood Ding Xian Wan and Tao Hong Si Wu San Deficiency Liver Blood Def. tonify Qi and Blood and quiet the wind Bu Xue Xi Feng San or Di Tan Tang plus Rehmannia 8 Liver & Kidney Yin Def. nourish Yin and extinguish wind Yang Yin Xi Feng San or Di Tan Tang and Left Side Replenished (Zuo Gui Wan) or Tian Ma Gou Teng plus Kidney Jing Def. extinguish the wind and astringe or nourish the kidney jing Di Tan Tang and Epimedium Powder

19 Epilepsy -- TCM Internal heat leading to generation of wind
Clear wind & heat and calm the Shen Points Constitutional points Clear wind & heat GB20, LI4, LI11, GV14, LIV3 Calm the shen PC6, HT7 Local points GV17, GV20, GV21, Long hui, GB9, GB13, BL5, GV1, ST40 TCM Herbals Di Tan Tang (TCM phenobarbital) Specific herbs for excesses or deficiencies present

20 Ear Staple Shen Men Center of the ear
Staple or point AP can help control 50% of refractor epilepsy cases Fold ear over & find center on inside

21 Acepromazine in An Shen
Half way around the back of the ear Aim toward the opposite base of lips Inject mg diluted with saline to 0.5-6ml

22 Basic Antioxidants Dogs Cats Vitamin E 10 IU/lb daily
Vitamin C 5-10 mg/lb twice a day Selenium 2 µg/lb daily Beta carotene 250 IU/lb daily B Complex 2mg/kg twice a day Vitamin E IU daily Vitamin C mg twice a day Selenium 50 µg daily Vitamin A IU daily B Complex 10 mg twice a day

23 Additional Considerations
Probably safe parasite control Interceptor Frontline Top Spot Revolution Should avoid Heartgard Proheart 6 Program Sentinel Frontline Spray Advantage Advantix

24 Additional Considerations
Diet Low-carbohydrate food Supplements Ginkgo biloba 2-4 mg/kg q8-12h Ginkoba or Publix brand Tofu or Lecithin 20 mg/kg daily Acetylcysteine 25 mg/kg q8h qod

25 Meningoencephalomyelitis
Infectious Diseases Species Specific Steroid Response ME (SRME) Necrotizing Vasculitis (SRMA) Necrotizing ME (NME) Granulomatous ME (GME)

26 Meningoencephalomyelitis
Pain to paresis to plegia Dx with CSF tap Spinal radiographs normal Myelography normal (might be contraindicated)

27 Meningoencephalomyelitis

28 CSF Tap Collection site for seizures is at the cisterna magnum.
Allows analysis for cells, protein and pressure. Cytology and titers for infectious organisms can be obtained.

29 Meningoencephalomyelitis
CSF Analysis may be normal or show increased pressure, protein and/or cells. CSF Titers species specific tests many must be paired with serum titers. CSF cytology form a dog exhibiting a mixed reaction with neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages.

30 Meningoencephalomyelitis
Infection virus rickettsia protozoa fungus bacteria Inflammation GME NME SRME SRMA

31 GME Can be: peracute acute & progressive chronic In brainstem, tends to be a multifocal inflammatory disorder Responds temporarily to steroids. Patient with GME presenting with vertical nystagmus, long tract signs, and circling with incoordination.

32 GME GME histologically causes multifocal meningoencephalitis due to proliferation of reticulohistiocytic cells. Lesions also show multinucleated giant cells.

33 Treatment of ME Primor (activated sulfadimethoxine)
Depends upon whether infectious or inflammatory Prednisolone Find minimum daily dose and then used 2 times MDD QOD Primor (activated sulfadimethoxine) 15 mg/kg BID Doxycycline 5-10 mg/kg QD Herbal Support Bromelain/Curcumin 2.5/5 mg/kg TID

34 Menigoencephalomyelitis
Wind-Phlegm expel phlegm, extinguish the wind, open the orifice and stabilize the seizures Ding Xian Wan Phlegm-Fire clear the liver, drain the heat, transform phlegm and open the orifices Di Tan Tang and Long Dan Xie Gan Tan

35 Brain Abscess in a Foal

36 Brain Abscess in a Foal

37 Vestibular Disease Cardinal Signs Head Tilt Nystagmus Circling (tight)
Horizontal Rotatory Vertical Positional Circling (tight) Imbalance & Incoordination

38 Vestibular Disease Vestibular Disease Idiopathic V.D.
8th Nerve, 7th Nerve & Horner’s Syndrome 8th Nerve only Anything Else Idiopathic V.D. Inner Ear Disease Central V.D. Brainstem V.D. Cerebellar Disease

39 Idiopathic Vestibular Disease
Acute Onset of Vestibular Signs Head tilt Horizontal or Rotatory nystagmus with fast-phase away from head tilt Nothing else Can Be Very Severe Acute, regressive disease

40 Idiopathic Vestibular Disease -- TCM
Wind (heat) invasion Clear wind & heat and calm the Shen Points Constitutional points Clear wind & heat GB20, LI4, LI11, GV14 Calm Shen PC6, HT7, GV17, GV20, GV21 Local points TH17, TH18, TH21, SI19, GB2, Er jian, An shen

41 Inner Ear Disease 8th Nerve Signs 7th Nerve Signs Horner’s Syndrome
ear & lip droop lack of palpebral reflex nose turn nostril flaring Horner’s Syndrome

42 Horner’s Syndrome Small Animals Large Animals Ptosis Myosis
Enophthalmos Large Animals Facial sweating (horse) Lack of muzzle sweating (cow)

43 Inner Ear Disease Most cases are secondary to bacterial infection (otitis media & interna) extension from otitis externa pharyngitis with extension up the Eustachian tube hematogenous spread

44 Ear Polyps in Cats Benign growth in the external ear canal which causes signs by extension. Can also be pharyngeal mass which grows into middle ear via the Eustachian tube.

45 Ear Polyps in Cats Treatment is surgical removal.
Damage can be permanent, if pressure necrosis has destroyed the inner ear structure.

46 Inner Ear Disease -- TCM
Invasion of external pathogen leading to wind, heat, damp. Heat boils the fluids leading to the accumulation of phlegm. Quiet the wind, reduce heat, disperse damp and activate the blood to dissolve stagnation.

47 Inner Ear Disease -- TCM
Points Constitutional points Clear wind & heat GB20, LI4, LI11, GV14 Calm the shen PC6, HT7, GV17, GV20, GV21 Eliminate damp SP9 Activate Qi & blood ST36, ST40, Xin shu Local points TH17, TH18, TH21, SI19, GB2, Er jian, An shen

48 Central Vestibular Disease
Postural Changes CP Deficit Dysmetria Reflex Changes hyperactive reflexes crossed-extensor reflexes Babinski’s sign Conscious proprioceptive deficit may be on the same or opposite side of the lesion.

49 Central Vestibular Disease
CSF Analysis may be normal or show increased pressure, protein and/or cells. CSF Titers species specific tests many must be paired with serum titers. CSF cytology form a dog exhibiting a mixed reaction with neutrophils, lymphocytes and macrophages.

50 Central Vestibular Disease
Inflammatory or Infectious Diseases canine distemper toxoplasmosis and neosporiosis fungal rickettsial GME SRME

51 Central Vestibular Disease
Trauma or Vascular remember dogs don’t get atherosclerosis ! Neoplasia meningiomas choroid plexus papillomas oligodendrogliomas astrocytomas metastatic neoplasia

52 Central Vestibular Disease
MRI of Cerebellar Meningioma

53 Central Vestibular Disease
Infectious Diseases FIP FeLV toxoplasmosis cryptococcosis Trauma Metabolic thiamine deficiency Toxicity organophosphates Neoplasia meningiomas

54 Central Vestibular Disease -- TCM
Can be wind, heat-damp or wind cold based upon the causative factor involved. Points Constitutional 8 Principle Zang-Fu

55 IVD- -TCM Diagnosis Represents a “bi” syndrome often accompanied by “wei” syndrome Under domain of KID (bones) & LIV (joints & free flow of qi & blood)

56 IVD- - TCM Patterns Excess types Deficient types Wind-Cold-Damp
Blood stagnation Deficient types Yang deficiency Yin deficiency Yin & Yyang deficiency

57 Fibrocartilagenous Emboli
Vascular occlusion from IVD material IVD herniates into the venous sinus or the vertebral body the venous sinuses have no valves increased pressure forces material into spinal cord

58 FCE Generally affects a radicular penetrating branch which leads to a quadrant (wedge) of infarction Many will improve with time

59 Schatzie

60 IVD- -Wind-Cold-Damp Acute invasion of external pathogen leading to stagnation (cold slows blood flow which is worsened by accumulation of damp) Tongue Greasy Pulse Slow & soft Rx principle Dispel W-C-D, activate blood & relieve stagnation TCM herbal Xiao Huo Luo Dan Acupuncture Hua-tuo-jia-ji, BL23, BL67, GB39, GV1, & GV14

61 Acute Spinal Cord Injury
Damage affects the vascular supply leading to ischemia The ischemia leads to lactic acidosis and lipid peroxidation which furthers the injury

62 Pathology of Spinal Injury
Within 5 minutes there are petechiations in the grey matter Progresses to complete hemorrhagic necrosis of the grey matter by 4 hours

63 Pathology of Spinal Injury
From 4-24 hours there is progressive local extension to involve the white matter. If force is great enough, then progresses up & down spinal cord

64 Treatment of Acute SPI Antioxidant steroids (Solu Medral or Solu Delta Cortef) 30mg/kg 15mg/kg every 8 hours for hours Surgical correction Acupuncture needle in wei jian (tip of tail)

65 Intervertebral Disc Disease: chondrodystrophic dogs
Collagen fibers of the nucleus pulposus metamorphs into hyalin cartilage IVD looses elasticity and leads to damage of annulus fibrosus

66 IVD- -chondrodystrophy
Annulus ruptures extruding degenerate nuclear material into the neural canal This leads to pain, paresis or paralysis

67 IVD- -Pain Only Cage Rest for 30 days or 3 weeks after patient becomes clinically normal. Acupuncture Oral steroids and diazepam only under supervision

68 IVD- -Paresis Hospitalize Should improve in first 5-7 days
Prednisolone (2 mg/kg divided 2-3 times a day) Misoprostol 3-4 µg/kg twice a day Diazepam mg/kg TID Should improve in first 5-7 days

69 IVD- -Paralysis with Deep Pain
Emergency Give Solu Medral or Solu Delta Cortef 30 mg/kg Refer May observe for 24 hours to see if dramatic improvement If none, Emergency

70 IVD- -Paralysis No Deep Pain
Emergency Give 30 mg/kg Solu Medral or Solu Delta Cortef Refer 75% respond in first 24 hours 50% in first 72 hours 25% after that

71 Integrative Therapy of IVD Disease
Acute IVD Disease is a surgical emergency Even with no deep pain there is a 75% chance of success within the 1st 24 hours & 50% chance in the 1st 72 hours After 72 hours with no deep pain, the chances are no different Chronic IVD Disease may respond poorly to surgery

72 Hemilaminectomy The thinned lamina is further removed and the laminectomy expanded with rongeurs exposing the spinal cord The area is probed for the problem IVD material

73 IVD After surgery, healing is needed Physical therapy Acupuncture
Passive movements Massage Standing exercises Hydrotherapy Walking Acupuncture Control pain Stimulate nerves Magnet therapy North pole magnet stimulates nerve regeneration Healing touch

74 IVD- -Diet Basic antioxidants Anti-inflammatory membrane stabilizers
Vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin B complex, selenium, beta carotene Anti-inflammatory membrane stabilizers Omega-3-fatty acids, gamma linolenic acid, coenzyme Q-10 Lecithin to help support myelination Herbal medications to help immune system Astragalus, cordyceps mushroom, garlic Dietary cartilage

75 IVD- -Prevention Diet & weight control Chiropractic care Massage
Low carbohydrate diet Basic antioxidants Chiropractic care Massage Exercise

76 Hans

77 Hans Routine radiographs showed a narrowed IVD space at T11-12 with a cloudy IV foramen Incidentally there was calcification of T13-L1

78 Hans

79 IVD- -Blood Stagnation
Most common type in chondrodystrophic dogs KID Jing deficiency leads to failure to nourish LIV leads to joint problems & stagnation Tongue Purple Pulse Wiry or Fast Rx Principle Activate blood, dissipate stagnation and resolve stasis TCM herbal Da huo luo dan (Double P formula #2) Acupuncture Hua-tuo-jia-ji, BL23, BL11, GB39, GV14, Wei jian, GV6, GV1, & LIV3

80 Cervical Spondylomyelopathy
Young Great Danes and older Doberman Pinchers Young dogs is due to misarticulation and spondylolithesis Older dogs is due to IVD disease and ligamentous hypertrophy

81 LS Stenosis- -Cardinal Signs
LS Back Pain pain on palpation at LS junction pain on raising the tail head Diminished tail movement Urinary and Fecal continency problems

82 LS Stenosis

83 LS Stenosis- -Diagnosis
EMG fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves caudal to LS junction, distal limb and tail Imaging techniques CT Scan MRI Scan

84 IVD- -Yang Deficient Old age leads to KID deficiency Tongue Pulse
General weakness & cold back Tongue Pale & wet (swollen with teeth marks) Pulse Deep & weak Rx principle Nourish Yang & warm KID TCM herbal Sang ji sheng san (lorathus powder) Chronic IVD

85 IVD- -Yin Deficiency Chronic illness or old age consumes KID Yin
Weakness in back worse at night Tongue Red & dry Pulse Deep, thready & weak Rx principle Nourish Yin & tonify KID TCM herbal Di gu pi san Chronic IVD

86 Discospondylitis Infection of the intervertebral space Common causes
Staph. aureus Strep. sp. Corynebactrium Signs Pain (can be extreme) Ataxia to plegia

87 Discospondylitis Diagnosis can be made on plain radiographs
May initially be normal, until 2-3 weeks of incubation Find organism via Blood culture Urine culture

88 Discospondylitis Also consider Treatment (6-8 wk)
Nocardia or other fungal cause (aspergillosis) Brucella canis Spirocerca lupi Treatment (6-8 wk) Cephalosporins Sulfa drugs

89 Moose 9 year old M/C Labrador HBC 4 months ago
Recovered Chronic, progressive paresis over 2 weeks

90 Moose- -Myelogram

91 Moose- -Surgical Observation
Abnormal articular process at T12 Epidural mass

92 Moose- -Cytology Impression smears from both the articular process and the epidural mass revealed PMN with intracellular bacteria

93 Moose- -CT scan

94 Moose- -Post OP Antibiotics Sulfadimethoxine (Primor) 15 mg/kg q12h
Cephalexin 22 mg/kg every 8 hours Use for 6-8 weeks

95 IVD- -Yin & Yang Def. Aging leads to KID Yang & Yin deficiency Tongue
decreases resistance & allows low grade infection to start Tongue Pink or pale Pulse Deep & weak Rx Principle Nourish Yin & tonify KID TCM herbal Double P #1 (hindquarter formula) Very chronic


97 Conclusions Acupuncture can help treat or control a number of neurologic diseases Point selection depends upon the constitution of the animal and the nature and location of the disease Patience is still a virtue with neurologic conditions

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