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Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies

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1 Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies
AP U.S. History

2 The Protestant Reformation Produces Puritanism
Catholic Church/Pope Leo – raising money, selling Indulgences – payments to reduce/cancel sin Martin Luther – started the Protestant Reformation Belief of Bible? Source of God’s word 95 Thesis – 1517 – statements on abuses of church

3 John Calvin – conversion experience – intense identifiable personal experience leads to a sanctified life King Henry 8th – church? Made himself head of the church, led to some wanting total reform in church Edward “Bloody” Mary Elizabeth Protestant Catholic Protestant

4 The Pilgrims End their Pilgrimage at Plymouth
Separatists – went to? Holland Left there b/c? Children too Dutch Charter – VA Company of London 1620 – New England Mayflower Compact – agreement to form a government and submit to the will of the majority First Winter – 44 of 102 survived Get help from – Squanto, Samoset. Next winter – better William Bradford – Governor 30 times

5 The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth
Non-separatists – sought to change the church from within “City on a Hill” – agreement to build a holy society that would be a model to everyone John Winthrop – 1st Governor Economy based on? Fur trading, fishing, shipbuilding

6 Building the Bay Colony
Franchise – adult males who belonged to the church Government – male property owners Who had real power? Religious leaders

7 Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth
Quakers – persecution with fines, floggings, and banishments Anne Hutchison – sharp in theology, predestination, brought to trial for heresy. Banished, went to RI

8 Roger Williams – wanted clean break from church of England
Roger Williams – wanted clean break from church of England. Wanted Indians compensated for land. Banished

9 The Rhode Island Sewer/New England Spreads Out
Offered complete freedom of? Religion!! Even for Jews and Catholics. No oaths, no compulsory attendance, no taxes to support state church. Hartford – CT – river where land was fertile Thomas Hooker – Fundamental Orders of Conn. – gave power to many people. New Haven Colony – Puritans wanting a closer church/state relationship. Merged with CT New Hampshire – separated from MA

10 Puritans vs. Indians Little resistance at first – diseases
Pequot War – 1637 – English set fire to villages and shot Pequots King Phillips War – Metacom hit frontier settlements (52 towns), hundreds killed. Metacom captured and killed.

11 Seeds of Colonial Unity and Independence
New England Confederation – 4 colonies together for defense from Indians, French, and Dutch. Colonies did not like … - Ma ignored royal orders Crown – gave CT a sea-to-sea charter, revoked MA’s charter

12 Dominion of New England –
New England, NY, NJ. Bolster colonial defense. Enforce the English Navigation Laws – restrict trade with other countries

13 Edmund Andros – Head of Dominion
Edmund Andros – Head of Dominion. Very harsh – supported the Catholic Church, no town meetings, heavy taxes Glorious Revolution – William and Mary (daughter of James II) took the throne. Colonists chased Andros out!

14 Salutary Neglect – Navigation Acts were weakly enforced.
**** Colonies were more prosperous when left alone****

15 Old Netherlands at New Netherlands
Henry Hudson – English but sailed for the Dutch – Hudson River New Netherlands – multi-ethnic, rare, money, Iroquois New Amsterdam – New York City

16 Friction with… /Dutch Residues…
Dutch allies with Iroquois New Sweden – Peter Stuyvesant Charles II – New York, Proprietary, Royal

17 Penn’s Holy Experiment
Quakers – Religious Society of Friends Characteristics – no taxes to church, no paid clergy, spoke in church when moved, kept hats on, “thee,” “thou,” no oaths, refused military service Practiced religious tolerance, …rich mix of ethnic groups Exported – grain and other foodstuffs

18 Questions 1. Compare and contrast the New England and middle colonies in terms of motives for founding, religious and social composition, and political development. 2. What efforts were made to strengthen English control over the colonies in the 17th century, and why did they generally fail?

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