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Latin America, Africa, The Middle East & Asia after WWII

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Presentation on theme: "Latin America, Africa, The Middle East & Asia after WWII"— Presentation transcript:

1 Latin America, Africa, The Middle East & Asia after WWII

2 I. Latin America Theme: power = corruption, reaction = revolution
Third world continent with western social/political structures, economic ties to U.S./Europe After WWII: economic expansion/crisis divided Latin Amer. between revolutionaries and conservatives Mexico – Party of Institutionalized Revolution (PRI) controlled Mexican politics for more than half of 20th century – very corrupt Zapatistas revolt (1994) – intended to highlight neglected social issues 2000 – PRI control ended, election of Vincent Fox Guatemala – poor nation, mostly illiterate, high mortality rate, land distributed unequally Juan Jose Arevalo, later Colonel Jacobo Arbenz, tried to reform based on land reform and nationalization of areas of the economy Conflicted with ideas/goals of United Fruit Company and landowners U.S. feared “communist” takeover, sponsored military coup - leads to guerilla resistance movement, brutal military repression on population CHALLENGE QUESTION!

3 I. Continued… Cuba – originally, strong ties to U.S. through trade, later becomes enemy Large middle class, high literacy and health rates, but huge gap between rural and urban life Fulgencio Batista ruled Cuba from (as reformer), (as dictator) Opposed by many, including Fidel Castro, who was imprisoned after 1953 attack After release, teamed with Argentinean, Ernesto “Che” Guevara, spent two years gaining support against Batista’s government Without support from U.S., Batista was driven from power Castro bases government on Marxist/Leninist ideas Foreign properties expropriated, farms collectivized, socialist economy Backing of Soviet Union (Cuba would have failed without them) Pattern of military takeovers throughout Latin America (often with help from U.S.) Examples: Brazil (1964), Argentina (1966), Chile (1973) 1980s – return to civilian control, but with continued U.S. pressure/presence CHALLENGE QUESTION!

4 II. Africa, The Middle East, & Asia
Newly independent nations face harsh reality after 1960s How do you build a prosperous nation after decades/centuries of colonial rule? Ethnic/religious divisions become more pronounced Economies still strongly tied to Europeans Population growth/pollution add to problems Nationalist movements made big promises – often couldn’t live up Internal rivalries overshadow independence India: Pakistan and Bangladesh independence due to Muslim/Hindu tensions Population explosion Added to already huge population in Asia; Africa still rapidly growing Colonialism brought new crops, law/order, transportation (prevented regional famines) BUT, Europe limited industrialization – made it difficult to deal with population growth Few jobs, little economic output, many areas still agriculture-based

5 II. Continued… Population explosion (continued…) Responses to problems
Leads to rapid urbanization Planning can’t keep up – rise of slums, poor sanitation, spread of disease Negative environmental effects – soil depletion, deforestation, industrial p ollution (no money for antipollution measures) Responses to problems Africa – rise of dictatorships Education reforms, industrialization top priorities Often faced opposition from rising political parties/ethnic rivals Political leaders increasingly turn to fascist-style policies to squash competition Little support from U.S. – policies often looked “socialist” Military takeover common response to problems worldwide – Uganda, Congo, Myanmar (worst examples)

6 II. Continued… Responses to problems (continued…)
Egypt – not just another coup Led by Gamal Abdul Nassar (1952) Based on Free Officers Movement – secret organization opposed to British-controlled khedives Self-rule for first time since 6th century Land reforms, state-financed education, gov’t aid for farmers, foreign policy opposed Israel/European control of Suez Canal Lack of money, population boom produce reform failures, lose to Israel (Six Day War, 1967) Anwar Sadat forced to dismantle state-run programs, stopped fighting Israel, opened Egypt to U.S./European investment Still a huge gap between rich and poor today (see modern revolution) India – the same but different Faced same problems with overpopulation, ethnic/religious divisions But, larger industrial/scientific sector, better communications, more skilled middle class

7 II. Continued… Responses to problems (continued…) India (continued…)
Early leaders/military dedicated to democratic rule Mixture of state and private investment – leads to rapid development in technology Green Revolution – improved farming, more crops = more money But problems remain Can’t please everyone – religious/ethnic strife remains through today Huge portion of population still very poor Iran – rise of the theocracy, rejection of the West Never a colony, but under sphere of western influence 1979 revolution, led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, return to religious fundamentalism Islamic law codes become superior – veiling, limited opportunities for women Isolate themselves from Western influence, wealth based on oil

8 EXIT TICKET! Answer the following questions using complete sentences:
What common challenges/issues did the people of Latin America face after World War II? (at least 2) Describe at least two “harsh realities” the people of Africa, Middle East, and south Asia faced after World War II. What global problems became prominent after the population explosion of the 20th century?

9 CHALLENGE QUESTION! Listen to the following story and answer the questions below, using complete sentences: What specific issues are at stake in Mexico, according the Zapatista leader, Subcommandante Marcos? What group of people do the Zapatistas seemed to be most concerned about, regarding rights? BACK

10 CHALLENGE QUESTION! Take 4-5 minutes to read your assigned primary source text (pgs ) and discuss the two questions at the end with your assigned partner. Answer using complete sentences. BACK

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