# Properties of Solutions

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Properties of Solutions
Chapter 11 Properties of Solutions

Solution Composition Molarity (M) = moles solute / Liters solution
Mass Percent – no units (mass solute / mass solution) x 100 Mole Fraction – no units – decimal number χ a= (mol a / mol total) Molality (m) = moles solute / kg solvent Does not change with temp

Example - #25 p. 548 A solution is made by dissolving 25g of NaCl in enough water to make 1.00L of solution. Calculate the mass percent, molarity, molality, and mole fraction of the sodium chloride. Assume the density of the solution is 1.00g/mL

Solubility Likes dissolve likes For solids Gases Polar dissolves polar
Nonpolar dissolves nonpolar For solids Increased Temp usually increases solubility Gases Increased Temp decreases solubility Increased Pressure increases solubility Henry’s Law

Henry’s Law The amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution P=kC P is the pressure above the gas above the solution k is constant for a solution C is the concentration of the dissolved gas

Implications of Gas Solubility
From:

Vapor Pressure of Solutions
A nonvolatile solute added to a solvent ALWAYS lowers the vapor pressure of the solution Fewer molecules to enter the gas phase Follows Raoult’s Law Called Ideal solutions

Raoult’s Law Psolution = χsolvent * Psolvent Where
Psoluiton = Vapor Pressure of Solution χsolvent = mole fraction of solvent Psolvent = Vapor Pressure of the solvent Since the mole fraction is always less than one the pressure of the solution is lowered

Example - #45 p. 549 A solution is prepared by mixing 50.0 grams of glucose C6H12O6 with g of water. What is the vapor pressure of the solution at 25ºC? The vapor pressure of water at 25ºC is 23.8 torr.

More on Raoult’s Law Nonelectrolyes (covalent compounds) have the expected change you calculate Electrolytes (Ionic compounds) will see a bigger change in vapor pressure Ex. Ethanol lowers vapor pressure of water as expected NaCl doubles the lowering of the vapor pressure. MgCl2 triples

Deviations From Ideal When the solute and the solvent have similar polarity the vapor pressure of the solution is lower Attraction b/t particles Negative deviation When the solute and the solvent have dissimilar polarity the vapor pressure of the solution is higher Positive deviation

Effect of Solute on Solution
What effect will the lowering of the vapor pressure have on the solution? Boiling point will go up Freezing point will go down

Colligative Properties
Properties that depend on the number of particles in solution Vapor Pressure Depression Boiling Point Elevation Freezing Point Depression Osmotic Pressure

Boiling Point Elevation
ΔTb = Change in the boiling point Kb = Boiling point elevation constant Units of (ºC*kg/mol) Constant for a given substance Data found in table 11.5 on page 532 If ΔTb for salt water is 2.2ºC then the new B.P. is 102.2

The van’t Hoff Factor i = The van’t Hoff factor
Tells you how many moles of particles a solute would form if 1 mole dissolves All covalent compounds have an i of 1 They do not ionize i for ionic compounds equals the # of ions NaCl = 2 MgCl2 = 3 AlCl3 = 4

Freezing Point Depression
ΔTf = Change in the freezing point Kf = Freezing point depression constant Units of (ºC*kg/mol) If ΔTf for salt water is 2.2ºC then the new F.P. is -2.2ºC

Supercooling From:

Example What is the freezing point of water if 0.25 mol. of glucose is dissolved in 500mL of water? Kf=1.86 ºC*kg/mol?

Example What is the new boiling point of water when 100. grams of NaCl is dissolved in 2.0L of water? Kb=0.51 ºC*kg/mol

Example Ethylene Glycol (C2H6O g/mol) is placed in radiators to prevent the water from boiling. How many moles of EG must be added to 10.0L of water to make the water boil at ºC? Kb=0.51 ºC*kg/mol

Osmosis The flow of solvent molecules into a solution through a semipermeable membrane High concentration of solvent to low concentration of solvent

Osmotic Pressure The Pressure required to stop osmosis
Pressure required to cause reverse osmosis Π=iMRT Π = osmotic pressure (atm) i = van’t Hoff factor M = Molarity R = L*atm/mol*K T = Temp in K

Homework P.548 #’s 26,28abd,38,46,57,63,70,72