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Intellectual History Review. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)

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Presentation on theme: "Intellectual History Review. Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Intellectual History Review

2 Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)

3 Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592) "Que sais-je?" (What do I know?) –Nothing

4 Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Heliocentric

5 Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Elliptical Orbits

6 Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

7 Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

8 From Science to Philosophy Francis Bacon (1561- 1626) René Descartes (1596- 1650)

9 Baconian Thought The Advancement of Learning (1605) Novum Organum (1620) Anti-scholasticism –Empiricism –Inductive reasoning Start with a question, end with a certainty

10 Cartesian Thought Discourse on Method (1637) Systematic doubt –Cogito ergo sum Deductive reasoning Rationalism

11 Modern Application Baconian empiricism and induction +Cartesian rationalism and deduction =The modern scientific method

12 The Philosophes

13 Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

14 John Locke (1632-1704)

15 Voltaire (1694-1778) Toleration Critical of organized religion –Ecracsez linfame –Believed in Deism I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it.

16 Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

17 Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) On Crimes and Punishments (1764)

18 The Baron de Montesquieu (1689- 1755) The Spirit of the Laws (1748)

19 Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712- 1778) The Social Contract (1762)

20 The Physiocrats Francois Quesnay (1694-1774) Pierre Dupont de Nemours (1739-1817) Anti-mercantilism Anti-regulation Concerned with agriculture Governments role: protect property and enforce laws

21 Radical Philosophes Baron dHolbach (1723-1789) David Hume (1711-1776)

22 19 th Century Intellectual Developments

23 August Comte (1798-1857) Positivism 1.The Will of God 2.The Will of Nature 3.The rule of unchanging law (positive age) There are rules for social behavior that man can understand The social sciences –Sociology

24 Darwin and Evolution Sir Charles Lyell (1797- 1875) –Geological change was slow, not due to catastrophes

25 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) All forms of life rose through continual adjustment His ideas were flawedhe believed children inherited characteristics of their parents

26 Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

27 The Voyage of the HMS Beagle 1831-1836 Galapagos Islands

28 The Origin of the Species (1859)

29 Archbishop Wilberforce T.H. Huxley Darwins Bulldog

30 Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) and Social Darwinism

31 Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) God is Dead Superman (Übermensch) The Will to Power

32 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) Sexual Drives Childhood Experiences The Unconscious Id, Ego, and Superego Repression –Oedipus Complex –Defense Mechanisms

33 Psychoanalysis Stages –Oral –Anal –Phallic –Latent

34 The New Science Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907)

35 Michael Faraday (1791-1867) Explored electromagnetism –Led to the development of the generator, the telegraph, the electric motor, streetcars, and the electric light

36 Other Scientific Advancements Max Planck (1858-1947) –Quantum mechanics Niels Bohr (1885-1962) –Atomic structure Antoine Henri Becquerel and Pierre and Marie Curie –Radioactivity

37 Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) Background Atheist existentialism Bad Faith

38 Main themes of existentialism 1.Existence precedes essence –man is a conscious being, not a thing that is manipulated or predetermined

39 2. Anxiety / Anguish The dread of the nothingness of human existence

40 3. Absurdity I am my own existence, but my existence is absurd

41 4. The Void There is nothing at all that structures the world in which we live

42 5. Death Death is the most personal and authentic moment…but it is as absurd as birth

43 6. Alienation Apart from our own conscious being, all else is otherness, and we are alienated from that otherness

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