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Winter Review.

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Presentation on theme: "Winter Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 Winter Review

2 Chapter 54 Behavioral Biology

3 What is Behavior? The way an animal responds to stimuli in its environment. Proximate Causation vs Ultimate Causation (Nature vs Nurture Debate) Inate Behavior-example egg-rolling response in geese Supernormal Stimuli

4 Is Smart Genetic? 1940’s Rat Experiment Twin Studies

5 Specific Genes can be linked to specific behaviors.
FosB gene

6 Learning Altering ones behavior as a result of previous experience
Types Nonassociative aka Habituation Associative aka Conditioning Classical Conditioning ( Pavlov’s dogs) Operant Conditioning (Reward/Punishment)

7 Can we learn anything? Nope Instinct vs Learning
What can be learned is biologically influenced. Example- Pigeon can associate food with color but not sounds. Can associate danger with sounds but not with colors.

8 Parent influence on Cognitin and Behavior
Imprinting- social attachments effecting behavior latter in life. Filial imprinting Ducks, monkeys and orphans…Oh MY!!!! Sexual Imprinting Ligers

9 Instinct and Learning Song Sparrows
Raised listening to no song or to the song of another species had undeveloped songs as adults Raised listening to their own species song developed normally.

10 Do animals think? Yup Chimps- termite eating technique
Japanese macaques wash sand off of potatoes

11 Orientation and Migration
Orientation- tracking stimuli in the environment ex to and from watering hole Taxis Migration- large groups traveling long distances Use both orientation and navigation (compass and map)

12 Animal Communication Species specific- example fireflies, dance language of the honeybee, primate language Long Distance- pheromones Non-species specific- marking territory, persuit deterrent in deer

13 Behavioral Ecology Adaptive Significance- example seagulls removing broken eggshells Foraging Behavior- optimal diet Territoriality

14 Reproductive Strategies
Determines how many mates , and how much time and energy to devote to rearing offspring Males and females differ in their reproductive strategies- males will mate with anyone! Why? Parental Investment

15 Sexual Selection Intrasexual Selection-individuals of one sex competing to get some. Sexual Dimorphism- differences between males and females Sperm Compitition Intersexual Selection-Mate Choice


17 Mating Systems Monogamy-Altricial Polygamy-Precocial
Polyandry-extra-pair copulations

18 Evolution of Social Systems
Individuals specialized to do different tasks Honeyees Leaf-cutter ants

19 Chapter 55 Population Ecology

20 The Environmental Challenge
Animals must meet the challenge of the environment they live in to survive Physiological Responses Morphological Capabilities Behavioral Responses Natural Selection Reinforces the responses to the environment

21 Populations Groups of Individuals of the same species in one space
Random Distribution Uniform Distribution Clumped Distribution

22 Population Demography and Dynamics
Sex Ratio and Generation time affect population growth rates Age at first reproduction correlates with life spane

23 Altruism The performance of an action that benefits another individual at a cost to the actor Group Selection Kin Selection- 2 brothers or 8 1st cousins Haplodiploidy- bees

24 Carrying Capacity The maximum number of individuals an environment can support Sigmoidal growth curve

25 Factors that Regulate Populations
Density Dependent Factors- as population size increases either birth rates decrease or death rates increase (Negative Feedback) Allee Effect Density Independent effects Outside factors effect population size ( ex natural disasters)

26 K vs r selected individuals
r - selected usually smaller, have a lot of babies at once K- selected usually larger, have fewer babies at one time

27 Human Population Growth
Human Populations have grown exponentially Human population growth has declined in developed countries but is still increasing in developing countries

28 Chapter 56 Community Ecology

29 Communities All of the species living in a particular area
Can be characterized by either the species present or properties of the community such as species richness and primary productivity

30 Individualistic vs Holistic Communities
Individualistic says that a community us just a bunch of species that happen to be in the same place at the same time Holistic says that communities are a integrated unit Which argument do scientists agree with and why?

31 Niches The total of all the ways it uses the resources in the environment Fundamental vs Realized Niche example deep and shallow barnicles Competitive exclusion and niche overlap

32 Predator Prey Relationships
A lot of predators = low prey….then low prey= death of predators….then death of predators = high prey…and so on and so on.

33 Coevolution When predators and prey accumulate adaptations to protect against being preyed upon then overcome these protections. Examples plant develops secondary chemical compounds to poison predators, then certain predators develop immunity and continue to prey on plants

34 Mimicry Some non-poisoness species “mimic” the coloration of poisoness or harmful ones as a means of discouraging predation. Batesian Mimicry- palatalbe insects resemble distasteful species Mullerian mimicry- unrelated species resemble one another.

35 Types of Species Interactions
Symbiosis Commensalism Mutualism Parasitism

36 Keystone Species Species that have a greater effect on the composition of a community than one may expect Example- Starfish

37 Succession When communities build at a specific site
Primary Succession Secondary Succesion Tolerance, Facilitation, Inhibition

38 Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
Greater diversity of species where there is slight disturbances happening often Why?

39 Chapter 57 Dynamics of Ecosystems

40 The Carbon Cycle

41 The Water Cycle

42 The Nitrogen Cycle 

43 Phosphorus Cycle

44 Energy Flow in Ecosystems
Law of Conservation of Energy Productivity- the rate at which new organic matter is created Trophic Levels

45 Energy in an Ecosystem

46 Trophic Level Interactions
Top Down Effects When changing something at the top of a trophic level effects the lower levels- taking away carnivore Bottom Up effects When changes in primary producers effect higher trophic levels-increasing or decreasing primary productivity

47 Chapter 58 The Biosphere

48 Biomes Tropical Rain Forest Savanna Desert Temperate Grasslands
Temperate Decidous Forrest Temperate Evergreen Forest Taiga Tundra

49 Tropical Rain Forest High Temperatures year round
Richest ecosystems on land High biodiversity

50 Savanna Warm Temperatures year-round Seasonal Rain

51 Desert Warm and cool temperatures Very little rainfall

52 Temperature Grasslands
Warm summers and cool winters Very fertile soil

53 Temperature Decidous Forrest
Warm summers and cool winters Plentiful rain Found in Northwest US Many Trees that lose leaves in the winter

54 Temperature evergreen Forest
Temperate climates Occur along Coastlines Dominated by pines and spruces (evergreen)

55 Taiga Cold Temperatures Very long cold winters Limited Precipitation
Spruce Trees

56 Tundra VERY cold Ground is frozen most the the year “permafrost”
Very few trees

57 Freshwater habitats Life depends on Oxygen availability
Oligotrophic- high oxygen and low nutrient Eytrophic- low oxygen and high nutrient

58 Human Impacts on the Bioshphere
Point Source vs Diffuse Pollution DDT Ozone depletion Global warming

59 Chapter 59 Conservation Biology

60 Save the earth!

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