Sign Warrant Definition: a warrant that offers an observable datum as an indicator of a condition Example: The war on drugs has failed because prisons are full of drug offenders and use among teens is rising.
Slanting Definition: selecting facts or words with connotations that favor the arguer's bias and discredit alternatives Example: Policies on immigration are invariably ineffective.
Slippery Slope Definition: appealing to worst case scenario of a logical argument Example: "You can never give anyone a break. If you do, they'll walk all over you."
Slogan Definition: an attention-getting expression used largely in politics or advertising to promote support of a cause or product Example: Nike – Just Do It!
Statistics Definition: information expressed in numerical form Example: 9/10 doctors indicate product A is more effective than product B.
Stipulative Definition Definition: a definition that makes it clear that it will explore a particular area of meaning of a term or issue Example: For the purposes of argument, we will define a student to be a person under 18 enrolled in a local school.
Straw Man Definition: disputing a view similar to, but not the same as, that of the arguer's opponent Example: Senator Jones says we should fund the attack submarine program. By doing so, he is throwing support to war efforts.
Style Definition: choices in words and sentence structure that make a writer's language distinctive Example: "The style of an author should be the image of his mind, but the choice and command of language is the fruit of exercise." (Edward Gibbon)
Substantive Warrant Definition: a warrant based on beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence Example: If you dangle mother's wedding band over her womb, you can determine the sex of the child. My mother and sister did this successfully, so it will be true in all cases.
Support Definition: any material that serves to prove an issue or claim; in addition to evidence, it includes appeals to the needs and values of the audience Example: The body paragraphs of a persuasive essay.
Syllogism Definition: a formula of deductive argument consisting of three propositions: a major premise, a minor premise, and a conclusion Example: Major premise: All humans are mortal. Minor premise: Some animals are human. Conclusion: Some animals are mortal.
Two Wrongs Make a Right Definition: diverting attention from the issue by introducing a new point - responding to an accusation with a counter-accusation that makes no attempt to refute the first accusation Example: Bill has borrowed Jane's pen but didn't return it. He tells himself that its okay to keep it, since she would have taken his.
Values Definition: conceptions or ideas that act as standards for judging what is right or wrong, worthwhile or worthless, beautiful or ugly, good or bad Example: goodness, beauty, truth, justice
Warrant Definition: a general principle or assumption that establishes a connection between the support and the claim Example: Pizza causes some people to experience heartburn.