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**Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)**

Chapter 1 Thinking Critically with Psychological Science James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers “What good fortune for those in power that people do not think.”

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**Thinking Critically with Psychological Science**

Critical Thinking Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions examines assumptions discerns hidden values evaluates evidence

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**Limits of Intuition and Common Sense**

Hindsight Bias (20/20 hindsight vision) tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon Overconfidence we tend to think we know more than we do (more confident than correct)

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**History is Living Proof**

“We don’t like their sound. Groups of guitars are on there way out.” Decca Records, 1962, Beatles Recording Contract “Computers in the future may weigh no more than 1.5 tons.” Popular Mechanics, 1949 “The telephone may be appropriate for our American cousins, but not here, because we have an adequate supply of message boys.” British expert group evaluating the telephone

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**The Scientific Attitude**

Curiosity– a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being mislead Skeptical, but not cynical (open, but not gullible Willing to question any truth claim, asking for clarity in definition, consistency in logic, adequacy of evidence “Paul Kurtz” Humility– ability to reject one’s own ideas Smart Thinking=Critical Thinking

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**Research Strategies Theory Hypothesis**

an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations Hypothesis a testable prediction often implied by a theory

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**The Scientific Method theories lead to generate or refine research and**

observations lead to hypothesis theories

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**Research Strategies Operational Definition**

a statement of procedures (operations) used to define research variables Example- intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

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**Research Strategies Replication Case Study**

repeating the essence of a research study to see whether the basic finding generalizes to other subjects and circumstances usually with different subjects in different situations Case Study an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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**Research Strategies Survey False Consensus Effect**

technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them False Consensus Effect tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors

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**Research Strategies Population Random Sample**

all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study Random Sample a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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Research Strategies If marbles of two colors are mixed well in the large jar, the fastest way to know their ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller one and count them

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**Research Strategies Naturalistic Observation**

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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**(positive or negative)**

Research Strategies Correlation Coefficient a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together and thus how well either factor predicts the other Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Correlation coefficient r = +.37 Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00)

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**Research Strategies Scatterplot**

a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation little scatter indicates high correlation also called a scattergram or scatter diagram

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**Research Strategies Perfect positive correlation (+1.00)**

No relationship (0.00) Perfect negative correlation (-1.00)

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**Research Strategies Scatterplot of Height and Temperament 95**

90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 Temperament scores Height in inches Scatterplot of Height and Temperament

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**Height and Temperament of 20 Men**

Research Strategies Height and Temperament of 20 Men 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 80 63 61 79 74 69 62 75 77 60 64 76 71 66 73 70 68 90 42 81 39 48 72 57 30 84 Subject Height in Inches Temperament

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**Research Strategies Three Possible Cause-Effect Relationships or or**

could cause (1) Low self-esteem Depression or (2) Depression could cause Low self-esteem or Low self-esteem (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause and Depression

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**Illusory Correlation Illusory Correlation**

the perception of a relationship where none exists Conceive Do not conceive Adopt Do not adopt disconfirming evidence confirming

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Random Sequences Your chances of being dealt either of these hands is precisely the same: 1 in 2,598,960.

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**Research Strategies Experiment**

the investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe their effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable) while controlling other relevant factors by random assignment of subjects by random assignment of participants the experiment controls other relevant factors

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**Research Strategies Double-blind Procedure Placebo**

both the subject and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the subject has received the treatment or a placebo commonly used in drug-evaluation studies Placebo an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent

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**Research Strategies Experimental Condition Control Condition**

the condition of an experiment that exposes subjects to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable Control Condition the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental treatment serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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**Research Strategies Random Assignment**

assigning subjects to experimental and control conditions by chance minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups

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**Research Strategies Independent Variable Dependent Variable**

the experimental factor that is manipulated the variable whose effect is being studied Dependent Variable the experimental factor that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable in psychology it is usually a behavior or mental process

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**Research Strategies Comparing Research Methods**

Research Method Basic Purpose How Conducted What is Manipulated Descriptive To observe and Case studies, surveys, Nothing record behavior and naturalistic observations Correlational To detect naturally Computing statistical Nothing occuring relationships; association, sometimes to assess how well among survey one variable predicts responses Experimental To explore cause Manipulating one or Independent and effect more factors and using variable(s) random assignment to eliminate preexisting differences among subjects

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**Research Strategies Design of the subliminal tapes experiment**

Subliminal tape content Self-esteem Memory Tape label Design of the subliminal tapes experiment

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**Statistical Reasoning**

Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z 100% 99 98 97 96 95 Percentage still functioning after 10 years Brand of truck

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**Statistical Reasoning**

Our Brand Brand Brand Brand X Y Z 100% 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Percentage still functioning after 10 years Brand of truck

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**Statistical Reasoning**

Mode the most frequently occurring score in a distribution Mean the arithmetic average of a distribution obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores Median the middle score in a distribution half the scores are above it and half are below it

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**Statistical Reasoning**

A Skewed Distribution 90 475 710 70 Mode Median Mean One Family Income per family in thousands of dollars

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**Statistical Reasoning**

Range the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard Deviation a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean Statistical Significance a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance

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**Does Behavior Depend on One’s Culture?**

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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