2 Theorists can approach democracy with Two Questions in mind… What is democracy in THEORY?What is democracy in PRACTICE?
3 Protective DemocracyA model democracy would Protect the rights of capitalist actors = free marketPromoted by James Mill (father of James Stuart Mill) in 19th century and Founding FathersAssumes there will be inequality in society and that elite will and should ruleWorst part of democracy for these theorists = “excesses of Democracy” – tyranny by majority
4 Developmental Democracy Model democracy would develop civic participation and good citizensAssumes people are inherently good (conceived by John Stuart Mill – James’ son -- mid-19th century)Assumes democracy has MORAL purposeAccepts representation as a practical necessity – vs. Protective theory which fears popular rule
5 Pluralist DemocracyModel democracy will be run by a Plurality through competitive elections – which means a large sector of society that is and will always be apatheticEmerged as theorists observed relative apathy among citizens in US in 1950sElite will rule and people will choose among a slate of elite in electionsCitizens participate in govt through special interest groups
6 Participatory Democracy Model democracy would have citizens who participate on wide scale – esp. at local levelArrived in 1960s as social groups critiqued current power structures (Carole Pateman)Special interest groups do NOT offer most citizens a chance at participationPeople do not NOT participate because they are naturally apathetic but because the STRUCTURE of current democracy excludes them