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**Physics for Scientists and Engineers**

Introduction and Chapter 1 – Physics and Measurements Mrs. Warren – AP Physics C: Mechanics Article for Chapter:

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**Physics Fundamental Science**

Concerned with the fundamental principles of the Universe Foundation of other physical sciences Has simplicity of fundamental concepts Divided into six major areas: Classical Mechanics (This is what we will be focusing on) Relativity Thermodynamics Electromagnetism Optics Quantum Mechanics Newton’s Laws of Motion on Earth vs. in Universe. Introduction

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Objectives of Physics To find the limited number of fundamental laws that govern natural phenomena To use these laws to develop theories that can predict the results of future experiments Express the laws in the language of mathematics Mathematics provides the bridge between theory and experiment. Introduction

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**Theory and Experiments**

Should complement each other When a discrepancy occurs, theory may be modified or new theories formulated. A theory may apply to limited conditions. Example: Newtonian Mechanics is confined to objects traveling slowly with respect to the speed of light. Try to develop a more general theory Introduction

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Classical Physics Classical physics includes principles in many branches developed before 1900. Mechanics (Classical Mechanics or Newtonian Mechanics) Major developments by Newton, and continuing through the 18th century Thermodynamics, optics and electromagnetism Developed in the latter part of the 19th century Apparatus for controlled experiments became available Matter and energy are separated into two separate concepts. Fundamental laws like law of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of momentum are imperative developments to classical physics. Introduction

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Modern Physics Began near the end of the 19th century Phenomena that could not be explained by classical physics Includes theories of relativity and quantum mechanics Why could we not correctly describe the motion of objects moving at speeds comparable to the speed of light? Space, time, energy What is really happening at the atomic level? Einstein’s Special theory of relativity: Correctly describes motion of objects moving near the speed of light Modifies the traditional concepts of space, time, and energy Shows the speed of light is the upper limit for the speed of an object Shows mass and energy are related Sometimes the year 1900 is used as a rough demarcation for the end of classical physics, coinciding with the year Max Planck began talking about small units of energy called quanta. Things, you could say, began to get really small in physics. The year 1900 onward – everything from Einstein’s work on special and general theory of relativity starting in 1905 all the way thru quantum mechanics – this is modern physics. In a very broad scale, classical physics can be thought of as macro scale physics because it explains the big, basic things of the world while not addressing the world of molecules or smaller. Introduction

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**Measurements Used to describe natural phenomena**

Each measurement is associated with a physical quantity Need defined standards Characteristics of standards for measurements Readily accessible Possess some property that can be measured reliably Must yield the same results when used by anyone anywhere Cannot change with time Section 1.1

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**Standards of Fundamental Quantities**

Standardized systems Agreed upon by some authority, usually a governmental body SI – Systéme International Agreed to in 1960 by an international committee Main system used in this text Includes base quantities and derived quantities Base quantities defined by standards (kg, s, m) Derived quantities? Section 1.1

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**Fundamental Quantities and Their Units**

Quantity SI Unit Length meter Mass kilogram Time second Temperature Kelvin Electric Current Ampere Luminous Intensity Candela Amount of Substance mole Section 1.1

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**Quantities Used in Mechanics**

In mechanics, three fundamental quantities are used: Length Mass Time All other quantities in mechanics can be expressed in terms of the three fundamental quantities. What is the standard unit of length? (meter) Mass? (kilogram) Time (seconds) Section 1.1

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**Length Length is the distance between two points in space. Units**

SI – meter, m Defined in terms of a meter – the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a given time See Table 1.1 for some examples of lengths. Standard units 1120 england – yard (nose to arm stretched out) , France - foot of King **1960 distance between 2 lines on a specific platinum – iridium bar stored under controlled conditions. Next, wavelengths of red-orange light emitted from Kr lamp. Finally….light in vacuum Speed of light in vacuum is 299, 792, 458 meters in 1 second. (so far valid throughout the Universe) Section 1.1

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**Mass Units SI – kilogram, kg**

Defined in terms of a kilogram, based on a specific platinum – iridium alloy cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Standards Established in 1887 & has not been changed. See Table 1.2 for masses of various objects. Originally, the kilogram was the mass of 0.10 m3 of water. Section 1.1

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Length and Mass

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**Time Units seconds, s Before mid-1960s, defined as a mean solar day.**

Atomic Clock Defined in terms of the oscillation of radiation from a cesium atom times the period of vibration of radiation from Cs - 133 See Table 1.3 for some approximate time intervals. A solar day is time interval between successive appearances of the Sun at the highest point it reaches in the sky each day. Based on the rotation of one planet (earth) not universal Time does not exist in itself, but only through the perceived object, from which the concepts of past, of present, and of future. Lucretis 99 BC – 55 BC Helpful Hint: Reasonableness of Results: When solving a problem, you need to check your answer to see if it seems reasonable. Reviewing the tables of approximate values for length, mass, and time will help you test for reasonableness. Section 1.1

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Number Notation When writing out numbers with many digits, spacing in groups of three will be used. No commas Standard international notation Examples: 25 100 Section 1.1

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**US Customary System Quantity Unit**

Still used in the US, but text will use SI Quantity Unit Length foot Mass slug Time second 1 slug = 14.6 kg 1 meter = 3.28 ft = 1.09 yds Section 1.1

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**Prefixes Prefixes correspond to powers of 10.**

Each prefix has a specific name. Each prefix has a specific abbreviation. The prefixes can be used with any basic units. They are multipliers of the basic unit. Examples: 1 mm = 10-3 m 1 mg = 10-3 g Section 1.1

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Prefixes, cont. You are required to know all of these prefixes, as well as being able to use the prefixes in unit conversions and dimensional analysis problems. Section 1.1

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**Fundamental and Derived Units**

Derived quantities can be expressed as a mathematical combination of fundamental quantities. Examples: Area A product of two lengths Speed A ratio of a length to a time interval Density A ratio of mass to volume Section 1.1

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**Model Building A model is a system of physical components.**

Useful when you cannot interact directly with the phenomenon Identifies the physical components Makes predictions about the behavior of the system The predictions will be based on interactions among the components and/or Based on the interactions between the components and the environment Section 1.2

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**Models of Matter Some Greeks thought matter is made of atoms.**

No additional structure JJ Thomson (1897) found electrons and showed atoms had structure. Rutherford (1911) determined a central nucleus surrounded by electrons. Now known protons, neutrons, and other particles consist of 6 different varieties of particles: quarks! Nucleus has structure, containing protons and neutrons Number of protons gives atomic number Number of protons and neutrons gives mass number Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks. Quarks Six varieties Up, down, strange, charmed, bottom, top Fractional electric charges +⅔ of a proton Up, charmed, top ⅓ of a proton Down, strange, bottom Section 1.2

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Modeling Technique An important problem-solving technique is to build a model for a problem. Identify a system of physical components for the problem Make predictions of the behavior of the system based on the interactions among the components and/or the components and the environment Section 1.2

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**Basic Quantities and Their Dimension**

Dimension has a specific meaning – it denotes the physical nature of a quantity. Dimensions are often denoted with square brackets. Length [L] Mass [M] Time [T] Each dimension can have many actual units. [A] = L^2 Section 1.3

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Dimensional Analysis Technique to check the correctness of an equation or to assist in deriving an equation Dimensions (length, mass, time, combinations) can be treated as algebraic quantities. Add, subtract, multiply, divide Both sides of equation must have the same dimensions. Any relationship can be correct only if the dimensions on both sides of the equation are the same. Cannot give numerical factors: this is its limitation Does the expression have correct form? That’s it! Section 1.3

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**Dimensional Analysis, example**

Given the equation: x = ½ at 2 Check dimensions on each side: The T2’s cancel, leaving L for the dimensions of each side. The equation is dimensionally correct. There are no dimensions for the constant. X = at2 D = v/2a Section 1.3

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**Dimensional Analysis to Determine a Power Law**

Determine powers in a proportionality Example: find the exponents in the expression You must have lengths on both sides. Acceleration has dimensions of L/T2 Time has dimensions of T. Analysis gives Do Example 1.2 Suppose we are told that the acceleration, a, of a particle moving with uniform speed, v, in a circle of radius, r, is proportional to some power of r, let’s say rn and some power of v, let’s say vm. Determine the values of n and m and write the simplest form of an equation for the acceleration. Section 1.3

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Symbols The symbol used in an equation is not necessarily the symbol used for its dimension. Some quantities have one symbol used consistently. For example, time is t virtually all the time. Some quantities have many symbols used, depending upon the specific situation. For example, lengths may be x, y, z, r, d, h, etc. The dimensions will be given with a capitalized, non-italic letter. The algebraic symbol will be italicized. Section 1.3

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Conversion Always include units for every quantity, you can carry the units through the entire calculation. Will help detect possible errors Multiply original value by a ratio equal to one. Example: Note the value inside the parentheses is equal to 1, since 1 inch is defined as 2.54 cm. When units are not consistent, you may need to convert to appropriate ones. See Appendix A for an extensive list of conversion factors. Units can be treated like algebraic quantities that can cancel each other out. 1 mile = m 1 m = in = ft 1 in = m = 2.54 cm Let’s do conversion examples here! **The distance between two cities is 100 mi. What is the number of km between the two cities? Section 1.4

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**1.5 Unit Conversions Unit Conversion Example #2:**

Capillaries, the smallest vessels of the body, connect the arterial system with the venous system and supply tissues with oxygen and nutrients. An average adult’s capillaries would be 64,000 km in length if completely unwound. How many miles is this length? Compare this length with the circumference of the Earth. [Using the c = (3.14)d; radius = 4000 mi

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**1.5 Unit Conversions Unit Conversion Example #3:**

A hall bulletin board has an area of 2.5 m2. What is this area in Square centimeters (cm2) Square inches (in2)

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**Order of Magnitude Approximation based on a number of assumptions**

May need to modify assumptions if more precise results are needed The order of magnitude is the power of 10 that applies. Estimate a number and express it in scientific notation. The multiplier of the power of 10 needs to be between 1 and 10. Compare the multiplier to ( ) If the remainder is less than 3.162, the order of magnitude is the power of 10 in the scientific notation. If the remainder is greater than 3.162, the order of magnitude is one more than the power of 10 in the scientific notation. Section 1.5

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**Uncertainty in Measurements**

There is uncertainty in every measurement – this uncertainty carries over through the calculations. May be due to what? Need a technique to account for this uncertainty We will use rules for significant figures to approximate the uncertainty in results of calculations. May be due to the apparatus, the experimenter, and/or the number of measurements made Section 1.6

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Significant Figures A significant figure is one that is reliably known. Zeros may or may not be significant. Those used to position the decimal point are not significant. To remove ambiguity, use scientific notation. In a measurement, the significant figures include the first estimated digit. 4 Rules of Significant Figures: 1. 2. 3. 4. Section 1.6

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**Significant Figures, examples**

m has 2 significant figures The leading zeros are placeholders only. Write the value in scientific notation to show more clearly: 7.5 x 10-3 m for 2 significant figures 10.0 m has 3 significant figures The decimal point gives information about the reliability of the measurement. 1500 m is ambiguous Use 1.5 x 103 m for 2 significant figures Use 1.50 x 103 m for 3 significant figures Use x 103 m for 4 significant figures Section 1.6

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**Significant Figure Practice**

Look at Worksheet

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**Operations with Significant Figures – Multiplying or Dividing**

When multiplying or dividing several quantities, the number of significant figures in the final answer is the same as the number of significant figures in the quantity having the smallest number of significant figures. aka: multiplying and dividing uses the quantity with the LEAST SIG FIGS! Example: m x 2.45 m = 62.6 m2 The 2.45 m limits your result to 3 significant figures. Section 1.6

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**Operations with Significant Figures – Adding or Subtracting**

When adding or subtracting, the number of decimal places in the result should equal the smallest number of decimal places in any term in the sum or difference. aka: Use FEWEST DECIMAL PLACES! Example: 135 cm cm = 138 cm The 135 cm limits your answer to the units decimal value. Section 1.6

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**Operations With Significant Figures – Summary**

The rule for addition and subtraction are different than the rule for multiplication and division. For adding and subtracting, the number of decimal places is the important consideration. For multiplying and dividing, the number of significant figures is the important consideration. Section 1.6

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**Significant Figures in the Text**

Most of the numerical examples and end-of-chapter problems will yield answers having three significant figures. When estimating a calculation, typically work with one significant figure. Section 1.6

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Rounding Last retained digit is increased by 1 if the last digit dropped is greater than 5. Last retained digit remains as it is if the last digit dropped is less than 5. If the last digit dropped is equal to 5, the retained digit should be rounded to the nearest even number. Saving rounding until the final result will help eliminate accumulation of errors. It is useful to perform the solution in algebraic form and wait until the end to enter numerical values. This saves keystrokes as well as minimizes rounding. Section 1.6

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