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Enlightenment & Monarchy Europe {Eastern & Western}

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment & Monarchy Europe {Eastern & Western}"— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment & Monarchy Europe {Eastern & Western} 1450 - 1750
New World Order Enlightenment & Monarchy Europe {Eastern & Western}

2 People & Concepts Partitions of Poland Pugachev Rebellion
Time of Troubles Instruction of 1767 Romanov Dynasty Westernization Rurik dynasty Chancery of Secret Police Catherine the Great Peter the Great [I] Ivan IV [Terrible] Alexis Romanov Radishev Peter III Ivan III Alexis de Tocqueville

3 Concepts & Places Serfdom Third Rome Obruk St. Petersburg Cossacks
Old Believers Boyars Third Rome St. Petersburg

4 Essential Questions Compare & contrast the characteristics and policies of enlightened and absolute monarchs. Trace the emergence of the Russian state from Ivan III and Catherine the Great. Identify the rulers of Eastern Europe and their policies, enlightened or absolutism.

5 Enlightened Rule Enlightened Absolutism Emerged 18th Century
Enlightened Ruler Allowed: Free speech Free press Religious toleration Private property Enlightened Absolutism Emerged 18th Century Are they all “enlightened”? Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent despotism or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and the press, and the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education. Enlightened absolutists' beliefs about royal power were often similar to those of absolute monarchs, in that many believed that they had the right to govern by birth and generally refused to grant constitutions, seeing even the most pro-monarchy ones as being an inherent check on their power. The difference between an absolutist and an enlightened absolutist is based on a broad analysis of how far they embraced Enlightenment. In particular, the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II can be said to have fully embraced the enlightened concept of the social contract[citation needed]. In contrast, Empress Catherine II of Russia entirely rejected the concept of the social contract while taking up many ideas of the Enlightenment, for example by being a great patron of the arts in Imperial Russia and incorporating many ideas of enlightened philosophers, especially Montesquieu, in her Nakaz, to a committee meant to revise Russian law

6 Largest Per Capita Army in Europe
Prussia Largest Per Capita Army in Europe Frederick Wilhelm I Prussia a feudal state Junkers [Aristocracy] Frederick II “The Great” Some limited freedoms [speech & press] Complete religious tolerance “Maintained” Junker class

7 Frederick II “The Great”


9 Junker Class As part of the nobility, many Junker families have particles such as "von" before their family names.

10 Prussia

11 Prussia

12 Austria EMPIRE LARGE AND DIVERSE The Hapsburgs Maria Theresa
Because of the large awkward empire Did not ascribe to enlightened ideals Maria Theresa ( ), archduchess of Austria, Holy Roman Empress, and queen of Hungary and Bohemia, began her rule in She was the only woman ruler in the 650 history of the Habsburg dynasty.   She was also one of the most successful Habsburg rulers, male or female, while bearing sixteen children between 1738 and 1756. Maria Theresa was the eldest daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI.  In 1711, Charles VI found himself the sole remaining male Habsburg. An old European law, the Salic Law, prohibited a woman from inheriting her father's kingdom. Concerned that he may not father a son, Charles VI issued a decree in 1713, known as the Pragmatic Sanction. This document guaranteed the right of succession to his daughter. At this time, many of the great powers of Europe agreed to her succession of power, at a price.  Upon the death of Charles VI in 1740, however, challenges to the Habsburg lands led to the War of the Austrian Succession. During the last several years of her father's reign, two wars had already left the monarchy financially compromised, and the army weakened. And since Charles VI had believed that his daughter would surrender true power to her husband, Francis Stephen of Lorraine, he did not take the time to teach her the workings of the government. Without money, a strong army, and knowledge of state affairs, Maria Theresa knew she had to rely on her judgment and strength of character.  King Frederick II of Prussia was her first challenger, when he took the occasion of Charles VI's death to occupy Silesia, beginning the War of Austrian Succession ( ). Bavaria and France joined in and invaded Maria Theresa's lands from the west. This challenge by Frederick II became the dominating element of Maria Theresa's long reign. The archduchess was determined that her internal and external policies would focus on the strengthening of her state and the creation of positive diplomacy in order to defeat the Prussian monarch. Maria Theresa was determined not to surrender to her enemies, but to reconquer all of her lands. She began by initiating reforms. Maria Theresa strengthened the army by doubling the number of troops from her father's reign, reorganized the tax structure to insure a predictable annual income to support the costs of the government and army, and centralized an office to assist in the collection of the taxes. Economic reform fueled prosperity for her empire.  The war ended with the loss of Silesia, but her state intact, and her husband recognized as Holy Roman Emperor.   In 1756, Maria Theresa felt that Austria was strong enough to renew her conflict with Frederick II. With the direction of her state chancellor, Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz, the empress reorganized Austria's foreign policy in the so-called Diplomatic Revolution." On the advice of Kaunitz, Maria Theresa abandoned its accord with Great Britain and secured an alliance with France and Russia.  Yet, Frederick II surprised everyone when he attacked first, invading one of Austria's allies, Saxony. This conflict began what is known as the Seven Years' War (which combined with the French & Indian war in the American Colonies). In 1763, after much bloodshed, Maria Theresa signed the Treaty of Hubertusberg, ending all hostilities and recognizing Prussian possession of Silesia once and for all. Two years later, Maria Theresa suffered a great personal loss, the unexpected death of her husband, Francis Stephen of Lorraine. Her love for him was so deep that from the day of his death until her own death in 1780, she dressed in mourning. After Francis Stephen's death, Maria Theresa became increasingly withdrawn. She continued reforms, but they came at a slower and more systematic pace. She changed her foreign policy from vigorously trying to regain Silesia to maintaining peace. After fifteen years of war and frustration, Maria Theresa was reluctant to get involved in conflicts that might prove unsuccessful. After the death of Francis Stephen, Maria Theresa recognized the eldest of her sixteen children, Joseph II, as emperor and coregent. Joseph II's  many fundamental differences in beliefs with his mother, caused anxiety and arguments. Periodically, Maria Theresa considered abdication of the throne. However, she never did abdicate. Instead, she allowed Joseph II only limited powers, since she felt his judgment too rash. Maria Theresa was courageous, generous and kind. She respected the rights of others and expected others to respect her rights. In the later part of her rule, the empress focused more on human concerns, and less on financial and administrative improvements. She became increasingly involved with the problem of serf reform. Throughout the empire, the peasants were obligated to pay monetary and work dues to their lords. In 1771, Maria Theresa issued the Robot Patent, the serf reform designed to regulate the peasants' labor payments in all of the Habsburg lands. The empress had a long reign which spanned forty years. She died on November 29, Some historians have termed Maria Theresa as the savior of the Habsburg Dynasty. Her efforts to transform her empire into a modern state solidified the Habsburg rule. Although when she came to the throne, her state appeared on the brink of dismemberment, Maria Theresa provided a strong foundation for the continuation of the Habsburg Dynasty into the modern era.


14 Emergence of Russia Free peasants Private army Modeled> Byzantium
Ivan III The Great Russian independence from Mongols Expansionist Cossacks Free peasants Private army Third Rome Modeled> Byzantium Ivan IV The Terrible Reign of Terror Died w/o heir Mikhail Romanov Chosen successor Dynasty lasted until 1917 Romanov Dynasty lasted until revolution 1917.

15 Mikhail I Fyodorovich Romanov (In Russian Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов)
(July 12, 1596 – July 13, 1645) Michael was unanimously elected Czar of Russia by a national assembly on February 21, 1613, but not until March 24 did the delegates of the council discover the young czar and his mother at the Ipatiev Monastery near Kostroma. At first Martha protested that her son was too young and tender for so difficult an office in such troublesome times. At the last moment, however, Michael consented to accept the throne, but not till the weeping boyars had solemnly declared that if he persisted in his refusal they would hold him responsible to God for the utter destruction of Russia.

16 Kazakhs Streltsi [Cossacks]
Streltsi – The creation of Russia's first permanent standing infantry -- the Strelzi -- was among the military reforms of Tsar Ivan IV, the Terrible ( ). The exact date of this event is historically controversial, but it appears to have happened around The name Strelzi derives from the Russian strela meaning "arrow" or "shooter" because these troops carried fire arms, which distinguished them from other native Russian forces at that time. Strelzi units were raised in Moscow and other cities and towns. The day-to-day duty of the Moscow Strelzi was to guard the Tsar's court and the cities and towns, to suppress internal revolts, and to protect the frontier until the entire army could be assembled. In peacetime they were on permanent garrison duty guarding the walls, towers, and gates of the cities as well as government buildings. They also guarded the state saltpeter works, convoys of money, prisoners, and ambassadors. The foot Strelzi were on guard duty by weekly turns in Moscow, and were sent to strengthen the garrisons in other towns. All large cities, such as Archangel, Astrakhan, Kazan, Novgorod, Pskov and Smolensk, had their own city Strelzi. In the border towns, there were garrisons of 20 to 100 Strelzi. These garrisons were mostly on the northwest border in cities like Pskov and Novgorod. There were fewer Strelzi on the southern borders because the government had other troops, such as the Cossacks and the frontier service, in those regions. In 1682 Peter the Great sent some of the Moscow units to the southern frontiers in order to reduce their political influence in the capital. The Strelzi were recruited from among freemen who promised to serve permanently. They were a caste of their own, often married, and their occupation became inheritable from the father to the son. To become a Strelzi, a newcomer needed a large number of sponsors from among the ranks. Peasants, serfs, and vagrants were not admitted. The Strelzi came from the local people as a rule, but in Kazan, for example, 13% were arrivals from elsewhere. They had to be volunteers in good health who could shoot. The commanders were from the dvoriane (court nobility) and from the deti boyar (literally, sons of the boyars, but really hangers-on) classes, which were both types of hereditary service nobility. Cossacks – the Czar’

17 Russia Russian expansion mirrored U.S. expansion.

18 St. Petersburg Peter the Great’s “Window on the West”.

19 Russia PETER THE GREAT Instituted: Forced & rapid modernization
Sent Russians abroad to study Travel in West to learn about governments, militaries, industries.

20 Peter’s Reforms MILITARY REFORM Better equipped Better trained
Modern weapons Better trained Aristocratic officers Learn geometry Largest army in Europe

Nobles served as government officials Table of Ranks Based on merit SOCIAL REFORM Abolished terem [harem] Ordered Women to wear Western clothing Men to shave beards

22 Boyars in “eastern” garb. Double Eagle motif of Romanov Dynasty
Boyars in “eastern” garb. Double Eagle motif of Romanov Dynasty. Symbolic of “divine right”.

23 St. Petersburg Peter the Great’s capital on Baltic
“Window on West” Transferred to new capital Government offices Noble families

24 Russia Catherine the Great Deeply interested in “philosophe`”
Displace husband to rule Continued Peter’s policy to westernize Appointed officials with Western education Deeply interested in “philosophe`” But granted no freedoms that weakened her rule French Revolution put an end to reform

EMPRESS OF ALL RUSSIA Born on April 21, 1729, in Strettin (now Szczecin), Poland, into the family of Prince Christian August of Anhalt-Zerbst, Catherine was christened Sophia Augusta Frederica. On February 9, 1744, aged 15, she came to Russia at the invitation of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna as the bride of the heir to the throne, Peter Feodorovich. They married in St. Petersburg on August 21, 1745, and she was christened into the Orthodox Church as Ekaterina Alexeevna. Industrious, highly intelligent and strong-willed, she quickly mastered the Russian language. A reader of historical and philosophical works, she entered into correspondence with some of the greatest minds in Europe, including Voltaire. On June 28, 1762, with the support of the Imperial Guard, she overthrew her husband Peter III. She was crowned Empress of All Russia on September 22, 1762, in the Dormition Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. Her rule was one of the most prosperous periods of the Russian Empire. She undertook a wide range of internal political reforms, waged two successful wars against the Ottoman Empire and occupied vast territories on Russia's southern boundaries, eventually advancing the country's border to the Black Sea. She died on November 6, 1796, and was buried in the Cathedral of the St. Peter and St. Paul Fortress in St. Petersburg.

26 Russian Expansion Partitioned Poland [with Prussia &Austria]
Clash b/c Poland was Roman Catholic Absorbed the Ukraine Peasants under Bodhan Khmelnitsky sought union Absorbed Siberia Smallpox reduced indigenous populations Pushed into Balkan regions [Ottoman] Halted by England & France Crimean War

27 Russian Expansion

28 Compare Expansion: Russia / U.S.A
East West

29 Russian Expansion West East

30 Russian Economics European trade
Import armaments, textiles, paper, silver Asian trade Islamic Empires > Czar restricted merchants Industrial development 200 new enterprises Population growth 18th C. > 15M to 30M

31 Russia & Religion French Revolution put an end to it all.
Crisis in Church Patriarch Nikon standardize practices Tsarist control Church becomes a dept. of state govt. Under Peter the Great “Intelligencia” Flourished under Catherine French Revolution put an end to it all.

32 Global Confrontation Part 2

33 Alliances Purpose of European system of alliances
Guided by self-interest Established a BALANCE OF POWER No group more powerful than another War of Austrian Succession Prussia & Austria Directly into Seven Year’s War The War of the Austrian Succession[1] ( ) involved nearly all the powers of Europe. The war began under the pretext that Maria Theresa of Austria was ineligible to succeed to the Habsburg throne, because Salic law precluded royal inheritance by a woman. The most enduring military historical interest and importance of the war lies in the struggle of Prussia and the Habsburg monarchs for the region of Silesia. Various other powers joined them at intervals, but what became the surprise was the quality of the Prussian forces which were a professional army, not a gaggle of mercenary companies as had been typical theretofore. Even Gustavus Adolphus, whom some credit with the invention of modern warfare method of combined arms, had used mercenaries in large measure. Permanent professional armies, then as now, were expensive. Southwest Germany, the Low Countries and Italy were, as usual, the battle-ground trampled by the armies of France and Austria. The habitual and constant allies of France and Prussia were the same Hapsburg relations in Spain and the Kingdom of Bavaria as had been teaming up for many issues and conflicts since the Thirty Years' War and to an extent, long before.

34 2d. The Austro-Hungarian Empire
Despite her many challengers, Maria Theresia held on to (most of) her inheritance; the complex of Habsburg territories remained under Viennese administration. The Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty held on to the Imperial throne. Frederick the Great had succeeded in the acquisition of Silesia - temporarily, that was; he was to fight for it again in the SEVEN YEARS' WAR. Savoy had established herself as a military power of her own. France, which had spent a considerable diplomatic, military and not the least monetary effort in an attempt to dissolve the complex of Habsburg territories, had utterly failed in achieving her objects. The War of Austrian Succession and the subsequent Seven Years' War, much more than the War of American Independence, are responsible for France's desolate financial situation in the late 19th century. The Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), southwestern Germany, Bohemia-Moravia and northern-central Italy once again have functioned as theatres of war, incapable of defending themselves, because the countries were ruled by dynasties residing far away or were politically too fragmented to offer effective resistance. From 1848 to 1916, Franz Josef controlled the destiny of not only Austria, but most of central and eastern Europe, as well. Marriages of convenience are often built on shaky foundations. The UNION OF AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY IN 1867 is a good example of such a marriage. The Italian and German campaigns for national unification altered the balance of power in continental Europe. These campaigns challenged the dominance of Austria's Habsburg Monarchy. While Italy and Germany were each coming together, the Austrian Empire was coming apart. Within its boundaries lived Austrian Germans, the Magyars of Hungary, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Romanians, Serbs, and Croats. Its people practiced the Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, and Muslim religions. Little other than geography held these groups together. Austria's defeat at the hands of French and Piedmont forces in 1859 and its crushing loss to Prussia in the Seven Weeks' War crippled Austria's influence in Europe and encouraged resistance within the borders of its empire. Faced with the dual threat of a rapidly industrializing German state and a unified Italy, Austria courted a new political partner to prevent the further erosion of its power. During the revolutions of 1848, Magyar leaders of Hungary and Czech leaders from Bohemia had asserted their independence from Austrian rule. The Magyar leader LAJOS KOSSUTH helped establish a parliamentary democracy with the passage of the March Laws of Austrian military forces crushed the Czech revolt, but Kossuth's HOME DEFENSE ARMY held firm. Soon afterwards Kossuth was elected president of the new Hungarian republic. But Austrian forces, with the help of 100,000 Russian troops, reasserted control over the defiant Magyars. Kossuth fled to exile in Turkey. In an effort to remain a world power and consolidate its crumbling empire in central and eastern Europe, Austria joined with Hungary to form the unusual alliance called the Dual Monarchy. Hungary Heart Although the revolution was crushed, Hungarian nationalist sentiment remained a persistent problem for the ruling Austrians. In 1867, after ruling Hungary for 150 years, Austrians offered the Maygars the promise of equal power. Lajos Kossuth was not just a beloved hero of Hungary. He was widely worshipped in the United States as well. While on tour in the U.S., he was received by cheering crowds everywhere he went. This is an image of his parade down Broadway in New York City. With the passage of the Settlement of 1867, known in Germany as the AUSGLEICH, the Austrian Empire became the AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN EMPIRE, a dual monarchy. In a dramatic ceremony in Budapest, the capital city of Hungary, the Austrian Habsburg ruler FRANZ JOSEF received the crown of St. Stephen, Hungary's first king. Franz Josef was desperately trying to keep the crumbling empire intact. The HABSBURG EMPIRE was now divided into two main territories: the AUSTRIAN EMPIRE and the KINGDOM OF HUNGARY. Both were ruled by the Habsburg monarch, who was centered in Vienna. Austria remained governed by the FEBRUARY PATENT OF 1861, which established a parliament known as the Reichsrat. The March Laws of 1848 governed Hungary. Leader of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, Lajos Kossuth was the first president of the new Hungarian Republic. Although Austria and Hungary each had a parliament to manage their domestic affairs and those of their respective provinces, a joint cabinet controlled mostly by Austrian and Hungarian aristocrats handled foreign affairs, military affairs, and finances. And though in principle the new empire was a constitutional monarchy, the emperor retained considerable powers, especially that of dissolving the parliaments by fiat. The Settlement of 1867 The SETTLEMENT OF 1867 (also known as the Compromise of 1867) provided Habsburg rulers with a more stable empire in the short run by securing strength through numbers. The empire retained its place as a great power in Europe. Vienna later became a center for the modernist thrust in art, music, and psychology. But the heterogeneous nature of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, increasingly anachronistic in an age of nationalism, guaranteed its failure. Other nationalist groups of the empire resented German and Magyar hegemony. The Magyar aristocracy aggressively pursued a policy of Magyarization, or forcing minority groups such as Croats and Serbs to assimilate into Hungarian society by adopting its language and customs. This pressure to conform backfired, as minority groups became even more conscious of their national identities than before. As minority nationalities stepped up their campaigns for independence, the response from Austrian and Hungarian rulers was repression — in particular, the end of press freedoms and trial by jury. Hungary also sought to further its independence from Austria, provoking EMPEROR FRANZ JOSEF I to suspend the Hungarian constitution in This repression fueled the growth of pan-Slavic terrorist groups such as the Black Hand, which was responsible for the assassination of Austrian ARCHDUKE FRANCIS FERDINAND in 1914, an event that helped trigger World War I.

35 War for Empire Seven Year’s War Britain & France & their allies
A.K.A. ? War for empire Britain & France & their allies Fought in Europe – N. America – on the High Seas


37 Enduring Questions What tendencies can we trace as continuities for the Russians? Trace backward & foreward. How do the Europeans utilize conflict to settle claims and differences?

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