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**Chemical Thermodynamics**

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown, H. Eugene LeMay, Jr., Bruce E. Bursten, and Catherine J. Murphy Chapter 19 Chemical Thermodynamics Dana & Michelle Chatellier University of Delaware © Copyright 2009, Pearson Education

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**The first law of thermodynamics states that __________ is conserved.**

matter energy entropy temperature

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**The first law of thermodynamics states that __________ is conserved.**

matter energy entropy temperature

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**Which process is NOT spontaneous at 25 °C?**

the melting of an ice cube the sublimation of dry ice the boiling of liquid nitrogen the freezing of ethyl alcohol

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**Which process is NOT spontaneous at 25 °C?**

the melting of an ice cube the sublimation of dry ice the boiling of liquid nitrogen the freezing of ethyl alcohol

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**Entropy is a measure of the __________ of a system.**

randomness internal energy temperature polarity

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**Entropy is a measure of the __________ of a system.**

randomness internal energy temperature polarity

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Since entropy is a state function, the change in entropy is equal to its final value __________ its initial value. plus minus multiplied by divided by

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Since entropy is a state function, the change in entropy is equal to its final value __________ its initial value. plus minus multiplied by divided by

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**Boltzmann’s constant = k. The number of microstates = W. Entropy = S**

Boltzmann’s constant = k. The number of microstates = W. Entropy = S. Which is correct? S = k x W S = k / W S = k ln W S = kW

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**Boltzmann’s constant = k. The number of microstates = W. Entropy = S**

Boltzmann’s constant = k. The number of microstates = W. Entropy = S. Which is correct? S = k x W S = k / W S = k ln W S = kW

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**Entropy decreases when:**

gases are formed from liquids. liquids are formed from solids. solids are formed from gases. the number of gas molecules increases during a chemical reaction.

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**Entropy decreases when:**

gases are formed from liquids. liquids are formed from solids. solids are formed from gases. the number of gas molecules increases during a chemical reaction.

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The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy __________ as a result of an irreversible process. increases decreases remains unchanged reaches equilibrium

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The second law of thermodynamics states that entropy __________ as a result of an irreversible process. increases decreases remains unchanged reaches equilibrium

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The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a pure, perfect crystalline substance at absolute zero (0 K) is: infinite. increasing. decreasing. zero.

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The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a pure, perfect crystalline substance at absolute zero (0 K) is: infinite. increasing. decreasing. zero.

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**H = enthalpy. S = entropy. T = Kelvin temperature**

H = enthalpy. S = entropy. T = Kelvin temperature. The Gibbs free energy, G, is: H + TS H – TS H x TS H / TS

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**H = enthalpy. S = entropy. T = Kelvin temperature**

H = enthalpy. S = entropy. T = Kelvin temperature. The Gibbs free energy, G, is: H + TS H – TS H x TS H / TS

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**The value of ∆G, the Gibbs free energy change, for a system at equilibrium is:**

positive. negative. rapidly fluctuating from positive to negative. zero.

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**The value of ∆G, the Gibbs free energy change, for a system at equilibrium is:**

positive. negative. rapidly fluctuating from positive to negative. zero.

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