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**Electric Forces & Fields**

Chapter 18

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**The Origins of Electricity**

In the mid 18th century Ben Franklin created the idea on positive and negative electric charge. It wasn’t until 150 years later the electron was discovered. Franklin described an electric “fluid” that would flow depending on electric pressure.

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Electric Charge In 1909 Robert Millikan discovered charge was “quantized.” This means there is a smallest amount. Thing about it like this, In order to have a car all the pieces must be there. If you try to take the engine out, it’s no longer a car. Electric charge is much the same. The electron has a set charge, take some away and it’s no longer an electron.

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**The Millikan Experiment**

Click here to recreate the Millikan oil-drop experiment

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Charged Particles Protons (+e): Mass = x kg, Charge = 1.60 x C Neutron: Mass = x kg, Charge = 0 Electron (-e): Mass = 9.11 x kg, Charge = x C e = 1.60 x C

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Neutral Objects If the number of electrons equals the number of protons the object is said to be electrically neutral. In general q (charge) = Ne, where N is an integer. Since proton are much more difficult to remove, most objects are charged by removing or adding electrons.

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Charged Objects When two dissimilar materials are rubbed together electron usually go from one to the other. Look on the triboelectric scale to see which way they go, positive or negative Also, charge is conserved. The net charge of an isolated system is constant

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**Like and Unlike charges**

Like charges repel each other Unlike (opposite) charges attract

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**Conductors & Insulators**

Materials that have lose valence electrons are conductors Materials with tightly held valence electrons are insulators Can you think of some?

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**Charging by Induction (Conductors)**

Click on the picture to open an applet

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**Polarization (Insulators)**

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**Coulomb’s Law F = 1/(4peo) q1q2 / r2 1/(4peo) = k F = Force (N)**

eo = 8.85 x (electric permittivity of a vacuum) q = charge (Coulombs) r = distance between charges 1/(4peo) = k

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Point Charges When more than two charges are acting on each other we sum the forces. Treat each pair independently, then add the forces. r1 r2 q1 q2 q3

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Point Charges in 2D When more than two charges are acting on each other in 2D, sum the forces for x and y dimensions. Again, treat each pair independently, then add the forces. q3 r2 q1 q2 r1

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Electric Field Just like mass create gravitational fields, charges create electric fields With gravity the field strength is measure as Newton per kilogram What do you think Electric fields are measured in? Newton's per Coulomb

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**Measuring the Electric Field**

If the unit is Newton's per Coulomb, what is the equation? E = F / qo Simple enough, right. E = Electric Field F = Force qo = charge producing field

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**Summing electric Fields**

It is the surrounding charges that create an electric field at a given point in space. Look at Example 8

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**Parallel Plate Capacitors**

To store charge a capacitor is used. The most common type is a parallel plate capacitor. Charge is spread uniformly, not really, through out the plate E = q /eoA = s / eo s = charge Density

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**Picturing the Electric Field**

Click on the picture to open an applet

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Electric Field Rules Fields start at positive and end at negative, or start or end at infinity. This is by convention. The field is said to predict the movement of a positive charge. The density of lines should represent the strength of the field. A positive charge will have a velocity tangent to a field line. Field lines do not actually exist since the are an infinite number of paths a test charge can take.

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**Electric Fields Inside Conductors**

Excess electric charge moves to the surface of a conductor At equilibrium the electric field inside a conductor is zero This comes from the fact that free electrons will not move inside the conductor. So the electric field lines don’t penetrate the conductor The electric field outside a conductor is perpendicular to the surface Click here for more info

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Triboelectric Scale Human hands (usually too moist, though) (Very positive) Rabbit Fur Glass Human hair Nylon Wool Fur Lead Silk Aluminum Paper Cotton Steel (Neutral) Wood Amber Hard rubber Nickel, Copper Brass, Silver Gold, Platinum Polyester Styrene (Styrofoam) Saran Wrap Polyurethane Polyethylene (like Scotch Tape) Polypropylene Vinyl (PVC) Silicon Teflon (Very negative )

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