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Presentation on theme: "PERSONALITY THEORIES."— Presentation transcript:


2 Personality Theories BEHAVIORISTS (Skinner)
PSYCHOANALYTIC (Freud, Neo-Freudians, Psychodynamic) SOCIAL COGNITIVE (Bandura, Mischel, Seligman) HUMANISTIC (Rogers, Maslow) BIOLOGICAL (Eysenck) TRIAT (Allport, Catrell, Sheldon)

3 Skinner Argued for determinism--behavior is fully determined by environmental stimuli. Free will is but an illusion…”There is no place in the scientific position for a self as a true originator or initiator of action.” Collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations.

4 Social Cognitive Theories
Applies principles of learning, thinking and social influences Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura)…idea that internal mental events, external environmental events and overt behavior all influence one another. Your environment determines your behavior & your behavior can change your environment.

5 Behavior Beliefs Environment

6 Bandura continued… *Observational Learning… Bobo doll experiment
*Often considered the father of the cognitive movement

7 Walter Mischel Colleague of Bandura at Stanford (now at Columbia)
Extent to which situational factors govern behavior…controversy over the consistency of human behavior Emphasizes and highlights situational determinants of behavior

8 Martin Seligman Julian Rotter
Learned Helplessness Optimism Julian Rotter--Locus of control (internal and external)

9 Humanists (Phenomenological)
Humans are essentially good Motivated toward self-actualization Maslow--Hierarchy of Needs Carl Rogers…Unconditional Positive Regard…Self Holism (considers whole person like Gestalt Phenomenological--everyone’s individual frame of reference/point of view

10 Biological Hans Eysenck--personality structure as a hierachy of traits
Three high order traits (Extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism)

11 Trait Theorists Gordon Allport--
Personal traits (dispositions)--concrete, easily recognized,consistencies in our behavior Common traits (culturally)--liberal/conservative Central traits (building blocks)--5 to 10

12 Allport (continued) Secondary traits(preferences, attitudes)
Cardinal traits (define life)…Mother Theresa--religious service Allport was so right about so many things that his ideas have simply passed on into the spirit of the times. Influenced many others. Humanist????

13 Other Trait Theorists... Sheldon--Body types (endomorph, ectomorph and mesomorph) Big Five Personality Factors (Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) Cattell--16 traits

14 Sheldon Ectomorph - Endoderm This is known to develop into the digestive tact which consists of the intestine, stomach. Heart lungs etc. this somatotype is also the innermost layer of the embryo. The personality traits associated with the endoderm body type is tolerance, love, comfort. In a word all the emotions that have to deal with a great deal of affection. The body type is considered to be fat and can easily be overweight. The love for people and the intimate relationship with food is also another trait of this personality. Mesomorph - Mesoderm This is the middle layer which in turn develops into the muscle, blood vessels, bone etc. In terms of body shape with this type of somatotype, Sheldon concluded that the physic of this body is all about muscle. These are well defined muscle tones. In terms of personality this relates to very energetic, courageous, active, aggressive, etc. all this can be seen as the personality of the Alpha male. Endomorph - Ectoderm This is naturally the last layer. It has its association or develops are that it forms the nervous system, skin and hair. These are people that are considered to be underweight because they are so slim. They are often the intelligent nerds and their personality traits are that highly self-aware therefore they are also very sensitive with an air of an artistic nature to them. In a way they are society’s introverts because of their shy and timid nature.

15 Personality tests Objective Tests MMPI Myers-Briggs Keirsey-Bates
Projective tests Rorschach TAT (Murray)

16 General Personality Information

17 Issues in Personality Theories
Free will or determinism Master of our fate, or victim to destiny? Nature or Nurture Inherited or shaped by environment Past, present or future When is personality developed? What influences are there based on our past, present and future experiences?

18 Issues in Personality Theories
Uniqueness or universality Are there patterns or are we all individually unique? Equilibrium or growth? Is our goal to reduce tension or are we motivated by need to reach our potential? Optimism or Pessimism Are humans basically good or evil?

19 Psychosexual Stages of Development

20 Stages of Development Freud believed that personality is formed during childhood. Our past childhood experiences are powerful influences on our present personalities

21 The stages (Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital) represent patterns of gratifying our basic needs and satisfying our drive for physical pleasure Insufficient or excess gratification during any stage could cause a person to reflect the stage throughout life.

22 Stages Oral (0-18 mo.) – Pleasure center is mouth – sucking, chewing, biting. Anal (18 mo-36 mo)– focus on gaining control, bowel and bladder elimination & retention as form of control. Phallic (3-6 yr) – Pleasure zone is in the genitals, focus on coping with incestuous sexual feelings Latency (6-puberty) – Repressed sexual feelings Genital (puberty on) – Maturation of sexual interests

23 Stage Issues During the Phallic Stage, The Oedipus complex occurs due to boys feelings of guilt for love of mother and fear of castration. During Oral Stage, deprivation or overindulgence may result in adult oral fixations or have dependence issues

24 If Anal Stage is not resolved, may result in an anal expulsive (messy, unorganized) or anal retentive (controlled compulsively neat) personality

25 Elements of Personality

Id - Pleasure Principle Ego - Reality Principle Ego Super Id Super Ego - Moral Principle

27 Elements of the Personality
ID Unconcious energy Basic drives Immediate gratification Pleasure Principle Instinctual/biological Libidinal Energy

28 Elements of the Personality
EGO Partially conscious Cope with real world Gratifies ID in realistic ways Reality Principle Logical/Rational Struggles to reconcile ID & Superego

29 Elements of the Personality
SUPEREGO Partially conscious Ideal behavior Moral Principle Conscience

“the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness small part above surface (Preconscious) Unconscious below the surface (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression banishing unacceptable thoughts & passions to unconscious Dreams & Slips

31 Expressions of the Unconscious
The work we choose The beliefs we hold Daily habits Troubling symptoms Jokes Dreams Slips of the tongue Accidents

32 Psychoanalysis and Freud

33 Freud’s Psychoanalytical
Discovered the unconscious Used hypnosis and then free association to unlock the unconscious Three levels of the mind: unconscious, preconscious, and conscious. Freud believed we are most influenced by our unconscious. Personality results from our efforts to resolve conflict between pleasure seeking impulses and internalized social restraints.

34 Psychoanalytic Personality Tests
Goal – to tap into the unconscious. Projective Tests – user tells a story or gives a description based on an ambiguous stimulus. Examples: Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – share inner feelings through stories made up about ambiguous scenes. Rorschach inkblot – descriptions of inkblots reflect inner feelings and conflicts. Criticisms: Reliability? – NO • Validity? – NO No universal scoring system or training system

35 Neo - Freudians

36 Neo - Freudians Accepted Freud’s basic ideas: Id, ego, superego.
Importance of conscious. Shaping of personality during childhood. Dynamics of anxiety & defense mechanisms. Differences: More emphasis on conscious. Less emphasis on sexual motivations. More emphasis on noble motives & social interactions.

37 Neo - Freudians Horney:
Dependent child’s sense of helplessness creates anxiety Triggers desire for love & security Criticized Freud’s gender bias

38 Neo - Freudians Alder: Childhood social conflicts influence personality development Inferiority complex

39 Neo - Freudians More emphasis on unconscious than other neo Freudians
Jung: More emphasis on unconscious than other neo Freudians Unconscious contains more than just negative, but unrealized talents, gifts, creativities & passions. Believed in a Collective Unconscious – Part of unconscious shared by all. Archetypes, the building blocks of the soul which are inherited and shared by all, live here.

40 Humanistic Perspective
Positive Approach Sense of Self = center of personality Goal = foster personal growth Emphasis = human potential Self concept shapes personality

41 Maslow The self actualized person Self aware & self accepting
Open & spontaneous Loving & caring Secure Creates deep relationships Is moved by personal peak experiences Has the courage to be unpopular

42 Carl Rogers IDEAL self = ACTUAL self A growth promoting climate:
Genuineness – openness Acceptance – unconditional positive regard Empathy – sharing our feelings and reflecting our meanings Positive self concept occurs when IDEAL self = ACTUAL self

43 self-esteem typically:
People with higher self-esteem typically: have < sleepless nights < likely to conform under pressure or use drugs more persistent at difficult tasks <shy & lonely

44 Criticisms of Humanistic Approach
Concepts vague and subjective Individualism can lead to self indulgence, selfishness, arrogance & pride. Ignores our human capacity for evil.

45 Social Cognitive Perspective
Applies principles of learning, thinking & social influence Emphasizes importance of external events and how we interpret them. Emphasizes our sense of personal control

46 Reciprocal Determinism
Bandura = process of interacting with our environment 1. Different people choose different environments 2. Different people interpret & react differently to situations & events. 3. Our personalities create situations to which we react. Ex – self fulfilling prophesy, expectations.

47 Who controls your world?
Do you see yourself as controlling of, or controlled by your environment? External locus of control – perception that outside factors determine one’s fate. Internal locus of control – perception that one has more control over own fate. Typically these people achieve more in schools, act more independently, are less depressed, in better health and cope with stress better.

48 Learned Helplessness Those who feel helpless & oppressed often view control as external. When traumatic events occur and people feel as if they have no control, they often learn helplessness, which can generalize to other situations.

49 Criticism Too much focus on situations, not enough focus on person’s inner traits SCs argue that our traits & emotions shine through in our reactions & responses.

50 Trait Perspective Characteristic Behaviors Conscious Motives
Describes Personality based on: Characteristic Behaviors Conscious Motives Describes, doesn’t explain Basically a classification system

51 Trait Tests Myers – Briggs Test - Based on Jung’s personality types:
Extravert vs. Intravert Thinking vs. Feeling Judging vs. Perceiving Sensing vs. Intuitive

52 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
Objective, normed personality inventory with validity scales for faking & lying. 10 scales: 1. Hypochondriasis 6. Schizophrenia 2. Depression Hypomania 3. Social Introversion 8. Hysteria 4. Psychopathic Deviancy 9. Paranoia 4. Masculinity/Femininity 10. Psychasthenia

53 Biology & Personality Low brain arousal results in more extraversion
Overactive Autonomic Nervous System results in a more emotionally unstable personality Inactive frontal lobe area results in a more extraverted personality Genetics influence personality

54 Trait Perspective Criticism
Person-situation controversy – Do traits persist over time and across situations? Are behaviors consistent from one situation to the next? Does trait perspective result in labeling & pigeonholing? Trait Perspective actually attempts to predict AVERAGE behavior over many situations to determine personality.


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