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**Solving problems by searching**

Course Teacher: Moona Kanwal 3/25/2017

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**Outline Well-defined Problems Solutions (as a sequence of actions).**

Examples Search Trees Uninformed Search Algorithms 3/25/2017

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**Problem-Solving Goal formulation (final state): limits objectives**

Problem formulation (set of states): actions+states Search (solution): sequence of actions Execution (follows states in solution) 3/25/2017

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Problem types Deterministic, fully observable single-state problem: initial state known, results of action known Non-observable sensor less problem (conformant problem): initial state not known, results of action known Nondeterministic and/or partially observable contingency problem: unknown states on some results of action Unknown state space exploration problem: unknown states, unknown actions 3/25/2017

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**Well Defined Problems A problem is defined by four items:**

initial state actions or successor function S(x) = set of action–state pairs goal test or predicate γ : S → {0, 1} is 1 iff goal state Explicit: concrete goal implicit : abstract description of goal path cost (additive):g, assigns a numeric cost to a given path. 3/25/2017

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**Well Defined Problems State-Space**

An Initial State, s0 ∈ S. A Set of Operators (or Actions), {Ai|i = 1, 2, . . } Formally, the state space is the set of states that can be reached by any sequence of actions applied to the initial state, e.g., S = {s0, ,Ai1s0, ,Ai1Ai2s0, ,Ai1Ai2 ・・・Aiks0, } A path is a particular sequence of actions applied to the initial state. 3/25/2017

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**A solution is a path that satisfies the goal test. **

Solutions A solution is a sequence of actions leading from the initial state to a goal state A solution is a path that satisfies the goal test. An optimal solution is a solution with minimal cost. 3/25/2017

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**Example: Romania On holiday in Romania; currently in Arad.**

Flight leaves tomorrow from Bucharest Formulate goal: be in Bucharest Formulate problem: states: various cities actions: drive between cities Find solution: sequence of cities, e.g., Arad, Sibiu, Fagaras, Bucharest 3/25/2017

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Example: Romania 3/25/2017

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Example: The 8-puzzle states? actions? goal test? path cost? 3/25/2017

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**Example: The 8-puzzle states? locations of tiles**

actions? move blank left, right, up, down goal test? = goal state (given) path cost?1 per move 3/25/2017

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Example: vacuum world Single-state, start in #5. Solution? 3/25/2017

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**Example: vacuum world Single-state,**

start in #5. Solution? [Right, Suck] Sensorless, start in {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8} e.g., Right goes to {2,4,6,8} Solution? 3/25/2017

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Example: vacuum world Sensorless, start in {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8} e.g., Right goes to {2,4,6,8} Solution? [Right,Suck,Left,Suck] Contingency Nondeterministic: Suck may dirty a clean carpet Partially observable: location, dirt at current location. Percept: [L, Clean], i.e., start in #5 or #7 Solution? 3/25/2017

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Example: vacuum world Sensorless, start in {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8} e.g., Right goes to {2,4,6,8} Solution? [Right,Suck,Left,Suck] Contingency Nondeterministic: Suck may dirty a clean carpet Partially observable: location, dirt at current location. Percept: [L, Clean], i.e., start in #5 or #7 Solution? [Right, if dirt then Suck] 3/25/2017

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**Vacuum world state space graph**

actions? goal test? path cost? 3/25/2017

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**Vacuum world state space graph**

states? integer dirt and robot location actions? Left, Right, Suck goal test? no dirt at all locations path cost? 1 per action 3/25/2017

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**Example: robotic assembly**

states?: real-valued coordinates of robot joint angles parts of the object to be assembled actions?: continuous motions of robot joints goal test?: complete assembly path cost?: time to execute 3/25/2017

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**Tree search algorithms**

Basic idea: offline, simulated exploration of state space by generating successors of already-explored states (a.k.a.expanding states) 3/25/2017

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Tree search example 3/25/2017

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Tree search example 3/25/2017

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Tree search example 3/25/2017

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**Implementation: general tree search**

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**Implementation: states vs. nodes**

A state is a (representation of) a physical configuration A node is a data structure constituting part of a search tree includes state, parent node, action, path cost g(x), depth The Expand function creates new nodes, filling in the various fields and using the Success or Fn of the problem to create the corresponding states. 3/25/2017

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**Search strategies Time and space complexity are measured in terms of**

b: maximum branching factor of the search tree d: depth of the least-cost solution m: maximum depth of the state space (may be ∞) 3/25/2017

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**Uninformed search strategies**

Uninformed search strategies use only the information available in the problem definition Breadth-first search Uniform-cost search Depth-first search Depth-limited search Iterative deepening search 3/25/2017

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**Breadth-first search Expand shallowest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe is a FIFO queue, i.e., new successors go at end 3/25/2017

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**Breadth-first search Expand shallowest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe is a FIFO queue, i.e., new successors go at end 3/25/2017

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**Expand shallowest unexpanded node Implementation:**

Breadth-first search Expand shallowest unexpanded node Implementation: fringe is a FIFO queue, i.e., new successors go at end 3/25/2017

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**Expand shallowest unexpanded node Implementation:**

Breadth-first search Expand shallowest unexpanded node Implementation: fringe is a FIFO queue, i.e., new successors go at end 3/25/2017

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**Properties of breadth-first search**

Complete? Yes (if b is finite) Time? 1+b+b2+b3+… +bd + b(bd-1) = O(bd+1) Space? O(bd+1) (keeps every node in memory) Optimal? Yes (if cost = 1 per step) Space is the bigger problem (more than time) 3/25/2017

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**Uniform-cost search Expand least-cost unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = queue ordered by path cost Equivalent to breadth-first if step costs all equal Complete? Yes, if step cost ≥ ε Time? # of nodes with g ≤ cost of optimal solution, O(bceiling(C*/ ε)) where C* is the cost of the optimal solution Space? # of nodes with g ≤ cost of optimal solution, O(bceiling(C*/ ε)) Optimal? Yes – nodes expanded in increasing order of g(n) 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Depth-first search Expand deepest unexpanded node Implementation:**

fringe = LIFO queue, i.e., put successors at front 3/25/2017

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**Properties of depth-first search**

Complete? No: fails in infinite-depth spaces, spaces with loops Modify to avoid repeated states along path complete in finite spaces Time? O(bm): terrible if m is much larger than d but if solutions are dense, may be much faster than breadth-first Space? O(bm), i.e., linear space! Optimal? No 3/25/2017

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**Depth-limited search = depth-first search with depth limit l,**

i.e., nodes at depth l have no successors Recursive implementation: 3/25/2017

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**Iterative deepening search**

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**Iterative deepening search**

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**Iterative deepening search**

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**Iterative deepening search**

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**Iterative deepening search**

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**Iterative deepening search**

Number of nodes generated in a depth-limited search to depth d with branching factor b: NDLS = b0 + b1 + b2 + … + bd-2 + bd-1 + bd Number of nodes generated in an iterative deepening search to depth d with branching factor b: NIDS = (d+1)b0 + d b^1 + (d-1)b^2 + … + 3bd-2 +2bd-1 + 1bd For b = 10, d = 5, NDLS = , , ,000 = 111,111 NIDS = , , ,000 = 123,456 Overhead = (123, ,111)/111,111 = 11% 3/25/2017

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**Properties of iterative deepening search**

Complete? Yes Time? (d+1)b0 + d b1 + (d-1)b2 + … + bd = O(bd) Space? O(bd) Optimal? Yes, if step cost = 1 3/25/2017

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Summary of algorithms 3/25/2017

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Repeated states Failure to detect repeated states can turn a linear problem into an exponential one! 3/25/2017

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Graph search 3/25/2017

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Summary Problem formulation usually requires abstracting away real-world details to define a state space that can feasibly be explored Variety of uninformed search strategies Iterative deepening search uses only linear space and not much more time than other uninformed algorithms 3/25/2017

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